CHM 401

Dr. Casalnuovo



Group Theory

The following links are exercises to help you in identifying various symmetry elements in molecules and in visualizing the actual symmertry operations:

Water Symmetry Exercise

Benzene Symmetry Exercise

Cyclohexane (Chair Conformation) Symmetry Elements Exercise


These links show a couple more examples of two of the trickier symmetry operations:

PtCl4 Inversion Center (i)

Methane Improper Rotation Axis (S4)


These links address the symmetry that is present in molecular vibrations:

Water Vibrations Exercise

CH2Cl2 Vibrations Homework




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