Practice Exam for Midterm #1

When attempting to explain complex events, social psychologists typically rely on (1)
a. common sense explainations based on casual, everyday observations.
b. scientific methods.
c. speculation.
d. casual observation and speculation.

In a ________ you make unobtrusive observations of your participants' behavior. (1)
a. field survey
b. field experiment
c. field study
d. simulation

Research on autobiographical memory suggests that the self (2)
a. plays a powreful role in the recall of events.
b. plays only a weak role in the recall of events.
c. plays no role in the recall of events.
d. actually inhibits recall of events.

An arrangement of information, thoughts, and feelings that we believe to be true of
ourselves is the definition for (2)
a. self-concept.
b. self-esteem.
c. self-presentation.
d. self-schema.

According to your text, we are less likely to lie to (3)
a. people with whom we have a close relationship.
b. people who are confident that they can detect liars.
c. federal agents.
d. men.

After you find out that a classmate of yours failed a really easy exam, you conclude
that he must not be terribly smart. In this case you made a(n) (3)
a. external attribution.
b. internal attribution.
c. noncorrespondent inference.
d. situational attribution.

According to your text, which of the following is more important when making
judgments? (4)
a. the cognitive component of a stereotype
b. the implicit component of a stereotype
c. the emotional component of a stereotype
d. the behavioral component of a stereotype

Mary holds the belief that she is not a racist. But she thinks that "blacks have been
pushing too hard" and opposes affirmative action programs to help blacks overcome
discrimination. Mary is displaying
a. authoritarian racism.
b. old-fashioned racism.
c. modern racism.
d. implicit racism

Whereas values are directed at _____, attitudes are directed at _____. (5)
a. people; objects
b. objects; people
c. objects; abstract notions.
d. abstract notions; objects

According to your text, the news media helps shape attitudes through (5)
a. the generalized exposure model.
b. the mere exposure effect.
c. making direct personal experience more salient.
d. agenda setting.

The Anderson and Pichert study on asking people to use a "burglar" or "home buyer"
schema in order to recall facts about a house demonstrated (L)
a. that schemas are important for encoding information.
b. how schemas can be used to retrieve information.
c. why schemas can block information.
d. how schemas often distort information.

All of the following are reasons why there are difficulties in the attidude and behavior
connection EXCEPT (L)
a. our feelings about something are quite similar to our actions toward it.
b. there may be other objects of equal or more importance than the target object.
c. the concept of attitude needs to be more refined.
d. behaviors may not be the most important aspect of attitudes.

Essay Questions

Owens, Bower, and Black (1979) conducted a series of experiments they called "The Soap
Opera Effect." What happened when people knew the overall script (schema) as opposed to
those who didn't know the overall script?

Discuss the distinctions among "stereotyping," "prejudice," "discrimination," and "racism."
How is racism related to other "-isms" (e.g., sexism, heterosexism) ?

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