Applied Social Psychology


Memory as Malleable

Loftus & Palmer (1974) - "a" broken headlight vs. "the" broken headlight
Loftus & Zanna (1975) - "smashed" vs. bumped
Loftus (1991) - implanted memories
Loftus (2003, 2005, 2006) - implanted memories


Weapon Focus

Weapon focus: The phenomenon by which eyewitness
accuracy is reduced when a weapon is present
Presence of a weapon reduces eyewitness accuracy
- A weapon is a highly salient detail at a crime.
- Eyewitness attention is focused on the weapon.
- Less attention paid to other details of the crime and criminal

Strength of the weapon focus effect is dependent upon:
- How soon after the event a witness is interrogated
- The degree of threat in the crime situation
- The length of time the witness is exposed to the weapon during the crime


Emotional Experience of the Eyewitness

Eyewitness accuracy affected by emotional level of the experience
Eyewitness accuracy is lower for violent than nonviolent crimes
- Experience more negative emotion in a violent crime
- Impairs eyewitness ability to identify criminal
Relationship between emotionality and accuracy is complex
- Stress and other variables interact to affect accuracy
- An eyewitness who produces a complete and accurate description of a
perpetrator may not be able to accurately recognize that individual in a lineup


Personnel Decisions

Job analysis
Employee recruitment
Employee screening


Work Motivations

Workers have differing levels of work motivation
Personal, situational, and structural factors contribute to work-related behaviors
Workers' needs affect work motivation
- Achievement
- Power
- Affiliation
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Personality traits


Goal-Setting Theory

Goal-setting theory suggests that an individual's conscious goals and
intentions are the primary determinants of behavior.

Effective goals are specific and difficult to achieve.
Commitment to goals is necessary.
Goals work through these mechanisms:
- Directing attention and effort toward goal-relevant and away from goal-irrelevant activities
- Energizing behavior to achieve difficult goals
- Increasing persistence at working toward goal
- Discovering and/or using task-relevant knowledge and strategies
Goals can be primed subconsciously



Great Man/Woman Theory - "Great leaders are born, not made"
Trait Theory - Search for common traits; too general
Ohio State Leadership Studies
- Initiating structure: define, organize, and structure tasks
- Consideration: concern for feelings and attitudes of followers
University of Michigan Leadership Studies
- Task-oriented behaviors
- Relationship-oriented behaviors
Fiedler's Contingency Theory: Combination of Ohio & Michigan
- Leader-member relations: quality of the relationship
- Task structure: how well structured the task is
- Position power: the leader's authority (e.g., hiring, firing, rewarding)
Path-Goal Theory: Help workers accomplish their goals
- Directive behavior: provide instructions/suggestions
- Achievement-oriented behavior: setting challenges; encouraging improvement
- Supportive behavior: focus on interpersonal relationships
- Participative behavior: encourage group members to actively plan and make decisions
Decision-Making Model: the leader makes decisions about a situation that leads
to an autocratic vs. a consensus path
Leader-Member Exchange: decisions based upon the specific relationship between
the leader and the worker
Charismatic Leadership: perceptions of charisma leads people to bollow the leader's goals
Transformational Leadership: ability of a leader to transmit a vision that will
fundamentally change an organization


Health Psychology

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
- Stage 1: Alarm stage; autonomic nervous system activity
- Stage 2: Resistance stage; restoration of normal body functions
- Stage 3: Exhaustion stage; profound, life-threatening physiological exhaustion


Appraisals of Stress

Primary appraisal: Appraisal of stressor
Secondary appraisal: Appraisal of resources to deal with the stressor
- Problem-focused coping
- Emotion-focused coping


Ways of Overcoming Social Dilemmas

Changing the Payoffs
"Small is Beatiful"
Appeals to Altruistic Norms


4 C's of Peacemaking




Bargaining: Seeking an agreement through direct negotiation between
parties to a conflict.
Mediation: An attempt by a neutral third party to resolve a conflict by
facilitating communication and offering suggestions.
Arbitration: Resolution of a conflict by a neutral third party who studies
both sides and imposes a settlement.


Bazerman's Warnings to Negotiators

Expanding the Fixed Pie
Dehexing the Winner's Curse
De-escalating Conflict
Undercutting Overconfidence
Reframing Negotiations


Osgood's GRIT Model

Graduated and
Initiatives in


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