Aspects of Group Influence

Social Facilitation
Social Loafing                     Collective Influence

Group Polarization
Groupthink                         Interactive Influence
Minority Influence


Aspects of Groupthink

--An illusion of invulnerability
--Unquestioned belief in the group's morality
--Stereotyped view of opponent
--Conformity pressure
--Illusion of unanimity


The Dialectic Method

--A proposed course of action is generated.
--Assumptions underlying the proposal are identified.
--A conflicting counterproposal is generated based on
  different assumptions.
--Advocates of each position present and debate the merits
  of their proposals before the key decision makers.
--The decision to adopt either position, or some other position,
  e.g., a compromise, is taken.
--The decision is monitored.


The Devil's Advocate Method

--A proposed course of action is generated.
--A devil's advocate (individual or group) is assigned to
  criticize the proposal.
--The critique is presented to key decision makers.
--Any additional information relevant to the issues is generated.
--The decision to adopt, modify, or discontinue the proposed
  course of action is taken.
--The decision is monitored.


Group Superiority vs. Inferiority

--Group Superiority: Informational, recognition of correct hypthosis
  (collective induction--Laughlin & McGlynn), strength of
  group protecting creative opinions.
--Group Inferiority: Groupthink, social loafing, rate busting, overly
  conservative or cautious, anonymity.
--Equal: Conditions of leadership.


Majority vs. Minority Opinion

--Majority opinion wins: Size, extremity of position, perceived as
  competent, exposure to minority opinion minimal.
--Minority opinion wins: Extremity and consistency of opinion,
  majority opinion weak, majority opinion lacks strong social
  support, minority favorably categorized.


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