Categorization of People
- Stereotype--a generalized attitude. Categorization
based upon some sort
of similar characteristic, such as physical appearance, religion, or belief.
- Prejudice--prejudging. Typically a negative attitude about an individual's
membership in a group.
- Discrimination--negative behavior. Acting upon one's belief about
another individual on the basis of membership in a group.
- Racism--discrimination + power
Racism: Discrimination + Power
Racism is the routine, instititutionalized
mistreatment of a person based on
his/her membership in a group on the downside of power.
Effects of Racism
- Economic--keep demands for higher wages &
- Social--segregation, leading to ignorance between groups of people.
- Political--fragmentation, which leads to the impairment of acting
in unison for the better good.
- Personal--ignorance & fear leads to limitations in personal choice &
Probability of Being Murdered in the United
(Hammond & Yung)
|Female||1 in 496||1 in 117|
|Male||1 in 205||1 in 27|
Three Reasons for Stereotyping
- It makes you feel better about yourself.
- It makes you feel connected to others.
- Cognitive economy (cognitive miser).
Cognitive Sources of Prejudice
Perceived similarities and differences
- Distinctive Stimuli
Ultimate attribution error
Just world phenomenon
White Privilege (McIntosh)
- I can avoid spending time with people whom
I was trained to mistrust
and who have learned to mistrust my kind or me.
- I can turn on the television or open to the front page of the paper and
see people of my race widely and positively represented.
- I can talk with my mouth full and not have people put this down to
- I am never asked to speak for all the people of my racial group.
- If my day, week, or year is going badly, I need not ask of each
negative episode or situation whether it has racisl overtones.
Male Privilege (Mio)
- I can always assume that my opinion will
be listened to and respected.
- I can look at nearly every major company in the world and know that
my gender will be represented at the very top levels.
- I know that if I am promoted to the top levels of my company, it won't
be attributed to my company "needing that gender" at the top to show
- If I am in a bad mood, I know that people won't attribute it to "that
time of month."
- If I do any housework at all, I will get credit for being "such a good
husband," even if it is only 15% of the total work.
- If I do any child rearing at all, see above.
Subtle Effects of Racism
- Claude Steele's Stereotype Threat
- Dovidio's Aversive Racism
- Pyramid of Success
Sue & Sue's Concept of Microaggressions
- Microassault: Blatant verbal, nonverbal, or environmental attacks intentionally
discriminatory or biased.
- Microinsult: Unintentional behaviors or verbal comments conveying rudeness
- Microinvalidation: Verbal comments or behaviors that exclude, negate, or
American beats out Michelle
Hughes Good as Gold
American beats out Kwan, Slutzkaya
(Seattle Times, February 22, 2002)
Minority Identity Development Model
- PRE-ENCOUNTER STAGE--Individuals are programmed
perceive and think of the world as being non-minority or anti-
minority and act in ways that devalue their minority development.
- ENCOUNTER STAGE--Individuals begin to gain awareness of
what it means to be minority, and they begin to validate
themselves in terms of minority identity.
- IMMERSION STAGE--Individuals reject all nonminority values
and fully immerse themselves in minority culture.
- INTERNALIZATION STAGE--Individuals develop a secure and
self-confident minority identity and are also comfortable expressing
preferences and interests for experiences from non-minority cultures.
Majority Identity Devleopment Model
- PRE-EXPOSURE STAGE--Little thought has been
multicultural issues or to one's own role as a majority group member
in a racist and oppressive society.
- EXPOSURE STAGE--The individual is confronted with the realities
of racism and prejudice. He or she is forced to examine his or her
own role as a majority group member. In this examination, it is learned
how the European-American view has been taken for granted as the
"proper" (only) view. Anger and guilt arise. Anger because it has always
been assumed that past ways of conceptualizing the world have been
thought to be fair and just. Guilt because the person realized his or her
naive acceptance of the "fairness" view, and that he or she has been
fostering subtle racism.
- ZEALOT-DEFENSIVE STAGE--One of two reactions: Become a
zealot for minority causes or become defensive about majority view
and perhaps even withdraw from finding out about multicultural views
altogether. In becoming a zealot, the person is reacting to his or her own
--or the majority culture's collective--guilt. It tends to be other-focused
rather than self-focused. In becoming defensive, the person either
attempts to have contact with majority culture individuals, or he or she
tries to defend majority culture values by pointing out all of the
"concessions" made by the culture to minority cultures.
- INTEGRATION STAGE--The overly strong feelings of the Zealot-
Defensive Stage subside, and a more balanced view takes its place.
Instead, a deeper appreciation of one's own culture allows one to have
a secure, self-confident identity, allowing for appreciation of other
cultures. One is able to accept differences both intellectually and
Cass's Gay and Lesbian Identity
- Stage 1--First awareness. Identity
- Stage 2--Awareness. Identity comparison. Alienation from others.
- Stage 3--Identity acceptance. Transition from tolerance to acceptance.
- Stage 4--Identity integration. Identity pride and synthesis.
Biracial Identity Development Model (Poston)
- Stage 1--Personal identity. Identity
independent of ethnic background.
- Stage 2--Choice of group categorization. Pushed to choose one group of
orientation. Factors of influence (from Hall, 1980): (1) status; (2) social
support; (3) personal.
- Stage 3--Enmeshment/denial. Confusion & guilt over having to choose
one ethnicity over the other. Self-hate.
- Stage 4--Appreciation. Beginning to appreciate multiple identity &
broaden their RGO.
- Stage 5--Integration. More fully appreciated multicultural identity and
Multiracial/ethnic Identity (Root)
- Acceptance of the identity society assigns.
Passive resolution of identity
status. May be positive, but often is tenuous.
- Identification with both racial groups. Active resolution of identity status.
May be idealistic but not available in certain parts of the country.
- Identification with a single racial group. Active resolution of identity status.
Again, may not be available in certain parts of the country.
- Identification as a new racial group. Strong kinship to other biracial persons.
positive resolution if the person is not trying to hide or reject any aspect of
- Symbolic identity. Identification with hypodescendent racial group only
return to resources