Kjer, Tori. 2006. Community-Based Landscape Literacy in Slum Settlements. Unpublished Master's Thesis. California State Polytechnic University.
Advisor: Jeff Juarez
The rapid and unplanned urbanization of society over the past decades has resulted in the proliferation of slum communities in major cities around the globe. Residents of slums have now reached one billion and comprise 78.2 percent of the urban population in developing countries and a third of the global urban population (United Nations, 2003). Squeezed into open and unused spaces, slum dwellers are forced to cope with a range of dangers that include exposure to communicable disease, violence, and natural disaster.
Reversing the crisis of slums requires intervention at multiple levels, from policy to design. Architects, planners, and engineers have started to address this global catastrophe on a community-by-community basis, utilizing design to reintegrate disenfranchised residents back into the city, but to date, there has been little presence of landscape architects in this work.
Through the use of design and development rooted in place there is potential to tell a story of local experience and inspire change. A new model of engaging residents in shaping their communities is needed that emphasizes change by promoting awareness on the part of designer and resident of the social and ecological elements of day-to-day life. This model of community-based landscape literacy integrates theories of plural design as described by Crewe and Forsyth, and a method of participation, participatory learning and action, (PLA) used by the international development community.
This study implemented tools with the goal of understanding how participatory landscape literacy techniques can teach residents to read the landscape while facilitating design with local knowledge. This study implemented tools adapted from PLA in a slum community of Tijuana, Mexico. Study findings include a clear identification of issues facing residents, barriers to implementation of PLA methods in landscape architecture, and a need for increased dialogue and analysis of a political agenda in the profession.
Di Sabatino, Jean. 2003. Reciprocity and Mutualism: The Integration of Landscape and Architecture in the Reclamation of the Former Cornfields Rail Yard. Unpublished Master's Thesis. California State Polytechnic University.
Advisor: Ken McCown
This thesis posits the need to integrate the design of landscape with the design of architecture. Environments resulting from an integrated and inclusive design are cohesive but complex, rich and clearly unified. An integrated and inclusive design provides an experience that is grounded in place, time and culture.
The nature of this relationship should be one of “reciprocity” – one where aspects of the landscape environment would affect aspects of the architectural environment. Borrowing from the Chinese principal of yin and yang, it is also central to this thesis that this “reciprocal” relationship should be one of mutuality and interdependence, without assuming sameness or the strict identity of either component.
Referencing Martin Heidegger and his theory on phenomenology and the “making of place”, the central of theme of reciprocal integration focuses on the idea that the place of the landscape exists because of the built environment and the built environment receives its identity from its place in the landscape.
Through research, analysis, design experimentation and application, this thesis demonstrates an integrated design strategy and its value and significance in contemporary environmental design.
The project is the design of an urban park in the city of Los Angeles and the design of a building element within the urban park. The site is an abandoned rail yard between the northeastern edges of Chinatown and the industrial zone west of the Los Angeles River channel, known as the Cornfields. The site and project were selected because they offered a good opportunity to explore the issues of designing an integrated environment at the macro/urban scale as well as the micro/building scale. The built environment of the city gives context to the landscape of the park and the landscape of the park gives context to the building. This thesis explores the integration, through ideas of reciprocity, of landscape and architecture.
Advisor: Dr. Kyle D. Brown
This study is an effort to trace the creative design process in the landscape architecture profession. The study provides an overall awareness of both the difficulties and opportunities presented in dealing with creative ideas within a greater context of realities of practice. One particular challenging reality is the understanding that, as a profession, landscape architecture is practiced within a team environment-not in creative isolation. That team is comprised of a myriad of individuals that influence the realization and perpetuation of built-works.
Ironically, the education and training of landscape architects is directly informed by the professional discourse that embraces logical positivism, the assertion that there is one optimal answer to a design solution by one individual voice. Logical positivism is in direct opposition to the realities of the design practice that demand the involvement of various voices-the designers, the client, the scientists, the stakeholders, the contractor, the team members, the direct users, the engineers and so on-which will actually frame design solutions. Moreover, it is from the context of all their interactions that a project emerges. Subsequently, how does a designer who is trained by academia as a convergent, individual thinker-"my design" evolve into a divergent, group thinker-"our design"? This suggests a need for academic development of a more effective methodology that offers the landscape architecture student the understanding of multiple perspectives, various thinking processes, and collaboration versus the traditional optimum autonomous perspective of the individual designer.
In conclusion the study discusses possible implications for discourse, education and practice, including the need for a new framework in landscape architecture that involves all the voices in the process to become a greater creative collective.
Advisor: Dr. Kyle D. Brown
People and flowers have a strong relationship. People are attracted to flowers and contribute the enjoyment of some activities or events to the beauty of flowers. Some researchers have found that the influence of flowers promotes people positive emotions. "The Emotional Impact of Flowers Study" was conducted by Haviland-Jones (2000), and "Effect of Floral and Foliage Displays on Human Emotions" was conducted by Adachi, Rohde, & Kendle (2000). Their findings suggest that people have a positive emotional response to flowers. However, those existing studies have focused on flowers in interior spaces, and emotional responses to flowers in landscapes have been not studied to a significant extent.
This study focuses on emotional responses toward flowers in landscapes. Participants were shown slides and asked to choose from a range of emotional responses using a two-dimensional structure measuring degrees of feelings of activation and pleasantness. Participants in this study who were surveyed were from eight university course classes (201 college students) and one scheduled session at a retirement community (15 people).
The findings support contentions by Adachi, Rohde, and Kendle (2000), Cooper Marcus and Barnes (1999), Haviland-Jones (2001), Lewis (1992, 1994), Schroeder (1991), Shoemaker (1994), and Ulrich and Parsons (1992), that flowers have a positive influence on emotional response. Also, the findings suggest that the presence of flowers tends to generate responses into the activated range, while the absence of flowers tends toward a deactivated response. Furthermore, the scale of massing, proximity, and content of the floral display appear to influence emotional responses. The results reveal that large-scale massings of flowers have greater effect on emotions than small or medium-scale massings; in addition, proximate views of flowers (a distance of less than 2 meters) demonstrate higher impact on emotional responses.
The results provide valuable insights for landscape designers seeking to evoke particular emotions or designing therapeutic environments for particular patient groups.
Simpson, John. 2003. Tree Ordinances: Public Opinion Survey Examining Issues of Functionality and Aesthetics in Del Mar, California. Unpublished Master's Thesis. California State Polytechnic University.
Advisor: Jerry Taylor
Tree ordinances in the United States date back to the 18th century. Del Mar, California, has a tree ordinance that protects both the Monterey cypress and the Torrey pine in the city on public and private property. Enforcement of its provisions has led to lawsuits and large fines. Bernhardt and Swiecki (1991) state that public support is vital to the overall success of a tree ordinance. To ascertain public opinion regarding the tree ordinance in Del Mar, a mail survey was sent out to 500 owner-occupied residences in the city of Del Mar. Results were scored using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Results show that seventy-two percent of the people surveyed were at least in partial support of this tree ordinance.
The three most commonly made suggestions by residents to improve the tree ordinance were: 1. Better maintenance needed. 2. Views/sunlight need more protection. 3. Dangerous/damaging trees need to be removed. When it comes to protecting trees on private property, there is about a fifty-fifty percent split in those people who support tree protection on private property vs. those who don't. Many homeowners would resist planting a new Torrey pine on their property and would even cut down a wild sapling before it grew large enough to gain protected status. Results show that people who considered themselves to have more liberal political leanings showed more support of the Torrey pine than those who had more conservative leanings. Torrey pine support is higher among people with graduate/advanced degrees than those with less education.
Matsuoka, Rodney H. 2002. Increasing the Acceptability of Urban Nature Through Effective Cues to Care: A Study of the Lower Arroyo Seco Natural Park, Pasadena, California. Unpublished Master's Thesis. California State Polytechnic University.
Advisor: Joan Woodward
Natural landscapes are highly valued by the general population of metropolitan areas. Many existing wildlife refuges and natural settings within urban areas, however, are perceived as being both unattractive and unsafe. "Cues to care," as described by Nassauer (1995), are elements of a landscape that denote "neatness, tended nature, and human intention," and are symbols by which natural landscapes are presented to the general public in a more acceptable and attractive manner (Nassauer 1995, 162-163).
This study analyzes how cues, involving showy flowering plants, pruned vegetation, fences, and wild bird feeders, relate to perceptions of attractiveness, safety, care, and appropriateness within a natural landscape. Digital visualizations were utilized to create realistic images of these four cues applied independently to two distinct settings within the recently redesigned (1997) Lower Arroyo Seco Natural Park in Pasadena, California. Park users (90) and students at California State Polytechnic University, Pomona (231) were asked to rate their preferences on a 7-point Likert scale.
The findings revealed that cues to care effectively enhance the perceptions of attractiveness, safety, and care in an urban nature park. In both settings, the flower, fences, and pruned vegetation treatments significantly augmented the perceptions of attractiveness. All of the cues enhanced feelings of perceived safety and care. The perception of appropriateness was improved by the flower and pruned vegetation cues only for the "general population" respondent group. Additional surveys are needed to better understand the issue of appropriateness for the local communities using a particular nature park.
Depending on the park setting, the cues ranked very differently for the four perceptions being measured. Landscape context played an important role in the effectiveness of the cues. High to moderate positive correlations were found between the perceptions of attractiveness and appropriateness, safety and care, and attractiveness and care. Significant differences in perceptions were uncovered depending upon the backgrounds of the survey participants. Background variations included gender, survey location, amount of park use, membership in environmental organizations, and whether the respondents belonged to the general population group. The results provide an increased comprehension of how these site features affect the public's perceived experiences and may play a role in increasing the acceptability and appreciation of created natural parks within the southern California urban area.
Swarm, Darryl. 2001. Anxiety and Situational Stress in Medical Oncology Patients: An Environmental Study of Landscape Views in Treatment Room Settings. Unpublished Master's Thesis. California State Polytechnic University.
Advisor: Kyle D. Brown
Anxiety is an important issue in cancer care and is often associated with a cancer diagnosis and the subsequent oncology treatment process (Skeel, 1999). Patients who experience constant anxiety/ fear, and a feeling of hopelessness are less likely to enjoy recurrence-free survival than those who adopt a more optimistic/fighting attitude (Gordon, 2000). Although natural scenes have been shown to reduce anxiety and improve mood in other contexts (Ulrich, 1991; Kaplan, 1991),the potential for landscape views to mitigate stress and anxiety in oncology treatment settings has not been adequately examined.
My study analyzed patient stress within the context of a medical oncology treatment facility that offers treatment rooms with and without landscape views. Patients were randomly assigned to one of the two room types and then alternated to the other settings on subsequent visits. Over the period of one hour, time scan observations were conducted every 15-minutes to document patient activity and, where possible, view shed preference. Physiological stress indicators (blood pressure and heart rate) were also obtained at 15-minute intervals. A self-assessment mood profile survey was administered shortly after the patient entered the room, and again, 30-minutes later. Finally, interviews were conducted in each setting to ascertain patient preferences and perceptions in the given treatment environment.
The results indicate that landscape views have a profound effect on lowering anxiety levels and improving overall patient outlook. Complete data sets for each of the four study methods were obtained from fourteen patients to compare view and non-view treatment environments. Mood profile readings showed almost twice the average improvement in all categories for patients in view rooms. Medical complications were attributed to the two patients showing a decline. All patients in the study noted a strong personal preference for a view or a window when interviewed. The patients described the view rooms as beautiful, open, bright and airy, generating uplifting feelings such as hope and tranquility. While patients sometimes had a positive first impression of the non-view rooms, many later described them as closed-in, stressful, claustrophobic and depressing. The patients also expressed a greater awareness of their sickness and their medical surroundings in the non-view rooms. This study suggests that medical administrators and environmental design professionals should work together to incorporate landscape views into new construction projects and existing facilities in order to provide the patients with the highest standard of patient care.
Advisor: Jeffrey K. Olson
To educate people more successfully about the value of landscape architecture, all communication efforts must reflect the profession's commitment to land, people, and design. In the late nineteenth century, Frederick Law Olmsted established landscape architecture as a profession dedicated to land and people. This focus, recorded in the literature of the profession and embraced as personal values by members of the profession, continues to provide a foundation for landscape architecture today.
Currently there are many discrepancies to those base values in the visual and written descriptions of landscape architecture because of the profession's abstract language. The internal values of landscape architecture must provide the focus for external communication.
Once all activities of the profession are consistent with these central values, landscape architects can deliver a clear and understandable message about their ability to design livable spaces. Through projects, awards, research, and publications, landscape architects can demonstrate the important role they play in fostering the relationship between land and people.
Advisor: Jeffrey K. Olson
There is a renaissance of landscape painting in southern California. This preoccupation is expressed in the work of artists Peter Alexander, James Doolin, David Hockney, Tom Jenkins, Barrie Mottishaw, Isamu Noguchi, Sandra Mendelsohn Rubin and Terry Schoonhoven.
I do not consider this group of artists to be a "school" of painting -- but loosely conceived, a republic of artists who each have a single vote.
From their work, five identifiable themes have emerged: a certain view of topography, aridity, color and light, vegetation and human influence. These themes are based not only on how the artists see southern California, but ultimately on what is real here as well -- our shared reality.
It is important for landscape professionals to look and learn from their work partly because it is a different way of looking at the southern California region. And also because artists express graphically and vividly, and in a more compressed form, what many textbooks and journals are reporting.
Exploration has led me to the conclusion that even seemingly "simple" landscapes are saturated with complicated and intricate meaning. Sir Kenneth clark, in Landscape into Art, asserts that landscape painting is dependent "on the unconscious response of man's whole being to the world which surrounds him." A painting is not just a recorded response to the landscape it depicts, but involves the artists' accumulation of experience over a whole lifetime, and in many locations and circumstances.
It is not only the variety and intensity of the southern California landscape that attracts these diverse artists, but the opportunity that our region affords for introspection applied to the landscape itself. There is a dynamic and reciprocal interplay between the artists' personal vision - the inner landscape, so to speak - and the outer landscape that constitutes the subject of my thesis. The artist's ultimate choice may be an ecological or even political decision as well as visual and aesthetic.
Advisor: Dr. Denise Lawrence
The purpose of this study was to assess the attitudes and behavior of Helix Water District residents regarding residential landscape water conservation. The study employed: 1) a survey instrument. 2) informant interviews, and 3) case study landscape redesigns with drought tolerant plants. The survey instrument was delivered to the 200 highest water users in the District; 44 residents (22%) responded to the questionnaire. Five of the survey respondents were interviewed at length as interview informants, and three respondents allowed their yards to be used as case study redesign projects. The findings of this study indicated that the residents were not very knowledgeable about drought tolerant and native plants, but that they were very interested in learning about landscape water conservation, and were also willing to participate in water conservation programs, and to actually change their landscaping to conserve water. The findings were used to develop a strategy for a community outreach program. That program Included classes, workshops, and literature as well as neighborhood demonstration gardens.
Morlock, Suzanne F. 1990. Environmental Innovation in Residential Subdivision Design: An Investigation in Orange County, California. Unpublished Master's Thesis. California State Polytechnic University.
Advisor: John T. Lyle
This study attempts to explain why environmental innovation has not been incorporated into the design of residential subdivisions in Orange County. With the continuing influx of people into the area and growing symptoms of a degraded environment, the identification of more ecologically appropriate settlement strategies is vital to the extended human use of the area. Relationships between sustainable settlement techniques and current development practices are explored in interviews with developers in Orange County. Primary finding are that the process of development itself is the greatest inhibitor to the introduction of innovation. Issues of costs, risk-taking, lack of information and lack of incentives describe elements of the process which limit more environmentally sound design practices in residential subdivisions.
Stine, Sharon R. 1990. A Study of Human Factors Related to Food Production in Regenerative Agriculture: A Design of a Preliminary Labor Model at the Institute for Regenerative Studies. Unpublished Master's Thesis. California State Polytechnic University.
Advisor: John T. Lyle
This research studied the labor requirements, decision making processes, management structures, and cycles of work related to food production and consumption in regenerative agriculture. Eight sites were selected that demonstrate regenerative practices in food production, energy, waste, and shelter. Educational programs were also an integral part of the activities at each of the selected sites. The study relied on field research a multi-method approach that included open-ended intensive interviews, and participant observation. This descriptive information was analyzed and applied to the Institute for Regenerative Studies to be build on the California Polytechnic State University campus during the next three years. As a result a preliminary model of labor demands, management structure and cycles of work was designed for the Cal Poly Institute of Regenerative Studies.
McDonough, Marcia L. 1989. Rainforest Conservation and Agricultural Development: Conflict and Compatibility in Baja Talamanca, Costa Rica. Unpublished Master's Thesis. California State Polytechnic University.
Advisor: John T. Lyle
This study examines the relationship between agricultural practices and the tropical moist forest ecosystem in the Baja Talamanca region of Costa Rica. The process of tropical moist forest conversion resulting from regional agricultural development is analyzed using key functions of the agricultural and natural environment as criteria for comparison. Three unique farm types have been identified and alternative processes of agricultural development are explored via key changes in these farming schemes. This investigation concludes with policy recommendations which encourage economically viable and environmentally sound agricultural development.
Advisor: John T. Lyle
Conventional flood control systems in southern California have been in place since the 1930's. While they have been effective in preventing flood damage, they are environmentally destructive. They have contributed to the degradation of riparian ecosystems, of coastal lagoons and of beaches. They offer little for community aesthetics. They have contributed to the increased use of land for urban development within natural floodplains. This use, however, only exposes more structures to damage by floods, and requires additional flood control measures.
Ecosystematic management of storm and floodwater, which includes both structural and non-structural methods, and emphasizes riparian restoration, can be an effective alternative to conventional flood control. The degree to which it may be applied to a watershed was investigated by literature search, interview, and on-site examinations. Research showed that the development of an ecosystematic plan requires an inventory of the physical and biological environment, as well as current land use. Strong evidence exists for the case that ecosystematic planning limits floodplain use, institutes site-specific runoff collection measures, and provides for riparian habitat restoration.
Several examples drawn from site investigations illustrate aspects of ecosystematic flood management: out-of-state: The Woodlands, Texas; Indian Bend Wash, Scottsdale, Arizona; in California: Medea Creek, Agoura Hills, La Mirada Creek Park, La Mirada; Tecolote Canyon Natural Park and the First San Diego River Improvement Project, San Diego. That these projects demonstrate alternatives to conventional flood control acceptable to both government agencies and to the public, establishes precedent to the inception of others.
Paez, John Barry. 1986. Guidelines for Water Conservation, Including Integrated Computer Systems for Measuring, Designing and Managing Water Use in the Landscape. Unpublished Master's Thesis. California State Polytechnic University.
Advisor: John T. Lyle
In the coastal semi-arid environments of southern California the need for irrigation water in the urban landscape can be reduced by approximately half through systematic analysis and the use of detailed, intensive methods of design, management and maintenance. Our urban landscapes typically account for half of all domestic and commercial water use. The projected growth for southern California will create unprecedented needs for water supplies in a region that is not naturally endowed to support huge urban populations. Given the potential savings in total urban water consumption and in anticipation of future increases in Ac costs of water, this report presents analytical methods and guidelines to achieve substantial savings in the urban landscape.
This research highlights four guidelines for developing and maintaining water efficient landscapes. The first is the conscientious use of plant materials in the landscape. The second is planting selections used in combination with efficient irrigation technologies. This report also provides design techniques for runoff control to capture and retain rainwater where it falls and offers alternatives to traditional urban flood control schemes. Finally, there are tremendous opportunities for the landscape architect to make use of treated wastewater for landscape irrigation and other water reuse schemes that may have a great effect on the future of southern California's development
This report also describes a systematic approach for measuring or predicting water use in the landscape. This process utilizes computer-based methods for design and management of the landscape emphasizing plant selection, and water efficient irrigation concepts.
Advisor: John T. Lyle
The regenerative capabilities of healthy ecosystems are well recognized through the study of ecology, yet our human systems are gradually becoming more removed from these natural processes that sustain us and assure our survival. The Center for Regenerative Studies is proposed as a way of designing human systems that function on the same principles as ecosystems, using a minimum of imports and exports and cycling wastes efficiently. Ecology provides guidelines to follow, and the technologies that give the design form and function are those that are the most like natural systems. The goal is an integrated, sustainable system that supports people while maintaining the health of the environment. Ultimately this will assure global environmental health.
The Center for Regenerative Studies is a student community proposed for a site on the campus of the California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. It would house 40 to 50 students, with facilities to conduct research and experiments in the areas of energy, plant and animal systems, water and soil cycles, and recycling, among others. It provides an important hand-on facility for experimentation with regenerative technologies which does not exist in Southern California
Advisor: John T. Lyle
Soft energy technologies are providing new challenges to the environmental design professions. Energy conversion systems in the future will be more diverse and integral with the landscape and will therefore have a profound effect on existing and future landuse patterns. Soft energy involve issues which are closely tied to the land and are influenced heavily by environmental and cultural values. The art of landscape alteration with respect to energy development is discussed. Hard and soft energy paths and their landscape implications are distinguished, providing a framework for further analysis.
Four renewable sources of energy are examined for their resource potential, these include direct solar, biomass, hydropower, and wind resources. Identifying appropriate sites for the employment of energy conversion systems and integrating those systems, requires more than optimizing resource potential, major issues that need to be addressed in planning energy systems include landuse, social aspects, cultural attributes, environmental concerns, economic considerations and aesthetics. These issues are discussed and a systematic approach is presented to assess their implications on the land.
Advisor: Jeffrey K. Olson
There is a definite biological need for an appropriate level of complexity in human surroundings. However, this need is not stressed in environmental design education. This study brings together the research done to date which indicates the biological need for complexity and draws conclusions as to how this is important to environmental designers.
The study first details the recent decline of complexity in design, as a result of both technological innovations and the ideologies of designers. Then the role of evolution in creating man's need for complexity is explored. Adding to this is a review of scientific research done with both animals and humans which demonstrates an innate desire for variety. The perceptual process is discussed and it is shown how human perception is specialized for sensing and organizing a middle range of complexity. Experimental evidence which supports the theory that humans prefer middle range complexity is presented.
Having shown the importance of complexity in human surroundings, the last sections of the study show how the present practices of environmental designers preclude the generation of complex designs. These criticisms suggest what attitudes need to be changed and also indicate ways in which complexity may be injected into the environment by planners, landscape architects and architects.
Advisor: Jeffrey K. Olson
This research project examines current approaches to reclamation in the Western region. Reclamation techniques at five surface coal mines are evaluated; the mines are located in Colorado, Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota and New Mexico. To appreciate reclamation efforts, one must comprehend the mining process. Therefore, mining phases, mining methods and equipment used for mining are examined. General impacts of surface mining are identified. Since reclamation efforts are dictated by regulations to a large extent, a summary of reclamation regulations is also included. Finally, the landscape architect's role in reclamation, with respect to current practices and alternatives, is examined.
Advisor: John T. Lyle
This paper investigates four aspects of Edward Huntsman-Trout: 1) his development as a landscape architect, including experiences in his early life significant to his interest in the field, his education, and influences relative to his concept of design; 2) his design philosophy and the principles by which he practiced; 3) his designs, through analysis of one institutional and eight residential projects; and, 4) his contributions to the field of landscape architecture and his place in its history.
The research herein is original. Information about Huntsman-Trout and his practice was provided by taped interviews with him, Mrs. Huntsman-Trout, clients, and contemporaries with whom he worked. Analysis of his projects was possible through the plans in his files and field study of the gardens still existing in original or near original condition. Reproductions of plans and photographs are included for illustrative purposes. Books and periodicals furnished historical information, included to understand his educational influences and to establish the setting in which he practiced.
Two basic themes emerged during the course of research. The first was his artistic approach to design and the second was the artist-patron system on which his practice was based.
He had an artist's approach to his work. The projects were treated individually and the primary considerations were the needs of the client, the demands of the -site and quality in design. His projects, therefore, did not display an identifiable style. Each design had 'its own character, reflecting the life style of the residents and the environment in which they lived.
The artist-patron system allowed Huntsman-Trout to maintain complete control and the highest standards of quality in his work. For that reason, he successfully perpetuated the once dominant system for many years after most landscape architects could no longer afford that practice.
His place in the history of landscape architecture was two-fold. He was an artist whose designs represented two important phases in the history of garden development in Southern California, and he was one of the last landscape architects to maintain a practice in the artist-patron tradition.
Huntsman-Trout's most valuable contribution to the field were his gardens. They provided functional and aesthetic surroundings for many residents and, with their documentation, offer an important educational resource to both students and professionals.
Advisor: Cameron R. Man
Currently there is renewed interest in urban centers as the future home of the major American shopping environment. Accepting this premise, it appears that there are lessons to be learned from the major European shopping environments which have, for centuries, occurred in centers of dense urban development. Most European shopping environments also demonstrate a vitality, excitement and activity diversity seldom found in those of the United States.
In order to avoid the shortcomings encountered in the shopping environments of the United States while retaining the good parts and to integrate the lessons to be learned from the European, a system for organizing some of the information available seems necessary for use in future shopping center design synthesis. To establish a system or process, the identification, investigation and comparison of behavioral phenomena generated by selected functions and conditions as they exist within the shopping environments of the United States and Europe was undertaken which resulted in models that are codified as archetypes of pedestrian activity.
The codification of the behavioral archetypes and an established cross-referencing system between the archetypes should aid the designer in shopping environment design synthesis. It also appears that the archetypes could provide a tool for evaluating existing designs.
Advisor: John T. Lyle
The thrust of this thesis was to find a means by which a landscape architect could legally, ethically, and profitably offer his services to the average homeowner at a cost the homeowner could reasonably afford. A number of alternatives were developed and theoretically evaluated against a predetermined set of constraints. Those faring best from this evaluation were then field tested on a number of different professions. From this testing, all alternatives were eliminated except the one that proposes that the landscape architect expand his business holdings so as to provide additional income beyond just design fees and also to provide a vehicle for reducing his burden of overhead costs. In this manner his design fees could be greatly reduced, thereby, allowing the average homeowner to acquire the amenities and cost benefits of a professionally landscaped home.
Dimock, Mark William. 1975. Comparative River Basin Planning: A Historiographical Method for the Analysis of Regional Planning in America and China. Unpublished Master's Thesis. California State Polytechnic University.
Advisor: Cameron R. Man
Historiography implies the multidisciplinary approach to analysis of the problem of the past. However, current problems--such as river basin planning-are also subject to the historiographical approach. Any river basin is an ecosystem which the planner endeavors to integrate with societal needs and political ends. Integration of the natural ecosystem with a human system in turn creates a new, organic entity, a planned river basin system.
River basin systems will have differences, because of their different environments, but within the system there will be similar functions, such as water storage, distribution, and use; a major function of any river system is the production of energy. Thus, in a comparative study of river basin planning, different environments can be contrasted, but similar functions can be compared.
The proposed historiographical method for comparing river basin planning for the Columbia River in America, and the Yellow River in China, is to apply a nine-step process. The steps systematically analyze the attributes of a variable, or of a significant subject in river basin planning; the position of the variable or subject within the environment; and then the role of the environmentally determined variable/subject within the total plan. The logic underlying this systematic analysis is derived from traditional oriental and occidental philosophy. It is the thesis-antithesis-synthesis dialectic.