The Life of Cesar E. Chavez
The Life of Cesar E. Chavez
The story of Cesar Estrada Chávez begins near Yuma, Arizona. Cesar was born on March 31, 1927. Cesar E Chavez. He was named after his grandfather, Cesario. Regrettably, the story of Cesar Estrada Chavez also ends near Yuma, Arizona. He passed away on April 23, 1993, in San Luis, a small village near Yuma, Arizona.
He learned about justice, or rather injustice, early in his life. Cesar grew up in Arizona in a small adobe home, where he was born. His home was swindled from his family by dishonest Anglos. Cesar's father had agreed to clear eighty acres of land and in exchange he would receive the deed to the forty acres of land that adjoined the home. The agreement was broken and the land sold to a man named Justus Jackson. Cesar's dad went to a lawyer who advised him to borrow money and buy the land. Later when Cesar's father could not pay the interest on the loan, the lawyer bought back the land and sold it to the original owner. From this, Cesar learned a lesson about injustice that he would never forget. He would say later, “The love for justice that is in us is not only the best part of our being but it is also the most true to our nature.”
In 1938, Cesar and his family moved to California. He lived in La Colonia Barrio in Oxnard for a short period, before returning to Arizona several months later. Then, they returned to California in June 1939 and settled in San Jose. They lived in a barrio called “Sal Si Puedes” or "Get Out If You Can." Cesar thought the only way to get out of poverty was to work his way up and send kids to college. He and his family worked in the different fields of California such as those in: Brawley, Oxnard, Atascadero, Gonzales, King City, Salinas, McFarland, Delano, Wasco, Selma, Kingsburg, and Mendota.
He did not like school as a child because he spoke only Spanish at home and that affected his schooling. The teachers were primarily Anglo and only spoke English, so Spanish was forbidden in school. He remembered being punished with a ruler to his knuckles for violating that rule. He also remembers that some of his schools were segregated and he felt like a monkey in a cage in these schools. He remembered having to listen to a lot of racist remarks as well. He saw signs that read, whites only. He and his brother, Richard, attended thirty-seven different schools. He felt that education had nothing to do with his farm worker/migrant way of life. In 1942 he graduated from the eighth grade and became a migrant farm worker because his father, Librado, had been in an accident and he did not want his mother, Juana, to work in the fields.
While his childhood education was not the best, education became his passion later in his life. The walls of his office in La Paz (United Farm Worker Headquarters) are lined with hundreds of books ranging from philosophy, economics, cooperatives, and unions to biographies on Gandhi and the Kennedys'. He believed that, "The end of all education should surely be service to others". (Where is this from?) This was a belief that he practiced until his untimely death.
In 1944 he joined the Navy at the age of seventeen. He served two years and experienced a strict regimen in addition to the discrimination already present.
After his time in the Navy, Cesar married Helen Fabela in 1948. Their honeymoon consisted of visiting all the California Missions from Sonoma to San Diego. This was fueled by his interest in education. After their honeymoons, they settled in Delano, California and started their family. His oldest children were named Fernando, Sylvia, and Linda and in addition to that they had five more.
After some time, Cesar returned to San Jose where he met and was influenced by Father Donald McDonnell. Together, they talked about farm workers and strikes. Cesar began reading about St. Francis, Gandhi, and nonviolence. After his time with Father McDonnell, another very influential person, Fred Ross, came into his life.
Fred Ross was part of the Community Service Organization, or the CSO, and Cesar became an organizer for this organization. His first task was working on voter registration.
The United Farm Workers Is Born
In 1962, Cesar E Chavez founded the National Farm Workers Association, later to become the United Farm Workers, or the UFW. He was joined by Dolores Huerta and the union was born. That same year, Richard Chavez designed the UFW Eagle and Cesar chose the red and black colors for the design. He had asked Richard to design the flag, but Richard could not make an eagle that he liked, so he finally sketched one on a piece of brown wrapping paper. He then squared off the wing edges so that the eagle would be easier for union members to draw on the handmade red flags that would give courage to the farm workers as their own powerful symbol. Cesar made reference to the flag by stating, "A symbol is an important thing. That is why we chose an Aztec eagle. It gives pride . . . When people see it they know it means dignity."
In 1962, there were very few members that were paying dues to the union. However by 1970, the UFW got grape growers to accept union contracts and had effectively organized most of that industry. At one point in time they claimed 50,000 members. The reason behind this surge in membership was Cesar Chavez's tireless leadership and his nonviolent protest tactics that included the Delano grape strike and the 340-mile march from Delano to Sacramento in 1966. His fasting also focused national attention on the farm worker's problems. The farm workers and supporters carried banners with the black eagle and the words HUELGA (strike) and VIVA LA CAUSA (Long live our cause). The marchers wanted the state government to pass laws which would permit farm workers to organize into a union and allow collective bargaining agreements. Cesar made people aware of the struggles of farm workers for better pay and safer working conditions. Cesar Chavez and the union sought recognition of the importance and dignity of all farm workers. He succeeded through his nonviolent tactics (the boycotts, pickets, and strikes).
This was the beginning of La Causa, a cause that was supported by organized labor, religious groups, minorities, and students. Cesar E Chavez had the foresight to train his union workers and then send many of them into the cities where they used boycotts and picketing as their weapons.
Cesar was also willing to risk his own life, so the union could continue and violence was not used. He fasted many times for this cause. In 1968, Cesar went on a water only, 25 day fast. He repeated this fast in 1972 for 24 days, and again in 1988 for 36 days. Regarding his motivation for his periods of fast, He said, "Farm workers everywhere are angry and worried that we cannot win without violence. We have proved it before through persistence, hard work, faith and willingness to sacrifice. We can win and keep our own self-respect and build a great union that will secure the spirit of all people if we do it through a rededication and recommitment to the struggle for justice through nonviolence."
Many events precipitated the fast, especially the terrible suffering of the farm workers and their children, the crushing of farm worker rights, the dangers of pesticides, and the denial of fair and free elections.
Cesar said, "A fast is first and foremost personal. It is a fast for the purification of my own body, mind, and soul. The fast is also a heartfelt prayer for purification and strengthening for all those who work beside me in the farm worker movement. The fast is also an act of penance for those in positions of moral authority and for all men and women activists who know what is right and just, who know that they could and should do more. The fast is finally a declaration of noncooperation with supermarkets who promote and sell and profit from California table grapes. During the past few years I have been studying the plague of pesticides on our land and our food.”(where is this from?) He then continued with, "The evil is far greater than even I had thought it to be, it threatens to choke out the life of our people and also the life system that supports us all. This solution to this deadly crisis will not be found in the arrogance of the powerful, but in solidarity with the weak and helpless. I pray to God that this fast will be a preparation for a multitude of simple deeds for justice. Carried out by men and women whose hearts are focused on the suffering of the poor and who yearn, with us, for a better world. Together, all things are possible."
Cesar Chavez completed his 36-day Fast for Life on August 21, 1988. Then, the Reverend Jesse Jackson took up where Cesar left off, fasting on water for three days before passing on the fast to other celebrities and leaders. Some of the participants were: Martin Sheen, actor; the Reverend J. Lowery, President SCLC; Edward Olmos, actor; Emilio Estevez, actor; Kerry Kennedy, daughter of Robert Kennedy, Peter Chacon, legislator, Julie Carmen, actress; Danny Glover, actor; Carly Simon, singer; and Whoopi Goldberg, actress.
The Death Of Cesar Chavez
Cesar Estrada Chavez died peacefully in his sleep on April 23, 1993 near Yuma, Arizona, a short distance from the small family farm in the Gila River Valley where he was born more than 66 years before.
The founder and president of the United Farm Workers of America, AFLCIO was in Yuma helping UFW attorneys defend the union against a lawsuit brought by Bruce Church Inc., a a giant lettuce and vegetable producer based in Salinas, California. Church demanded that the farm workers pay millions of dollars in damages resulting from a UFW boycott of its lettuce during the 1980's and rather than keep the legal action in a state where the boycotts actually took place, like California or New York, Church "shopped around" for a friendly court in the conservative, agribusiness dominated Arizona, where there had been no boycott activity.
"Cesar gave his last ounce of strength defending the farm workers in this case," stated his successor, UFW President Arturo Rodriguez, who was with him in Arizona during the trial with Church. He died standing up for their First Amendment rights to speak out for themselves. He believed in his heart that the farm workers were right in boycotting Bruce Church Inc. lettuce during the l980's and he was determined to prove that in court." (Where is this from?) When the second multimillion dollar judgment for Church was thrown out in an appeal's court, the company signed a UFW contract in May 1996.
After the trial recessed at about 3 p.m. on Thursday, April 22, Cesar spent part of the afternoon driving through the Latino neighborhoods in Yuma that he knew as a child. Many Chávez’s still live in the area. He arrived about 6 p.m. in San Luis, Arizona, about 20 miles from Yuma, at the modest concreteblock home of Dofla Maria Hau, a former farm worker and longtime friend. Cesar and eight other UFW leaders and staff were staying at her house in a poor farm worker neighborhood not far from the Mexican border.
Cesar ate dinner at around 9 p.m. and presided over a brief meeting to review the day's events. He had just finished two days of often grueling examination by attorneys for Bruce Church Inc. He talked to his colleagues about taking care of themselves, a recurring theme with Cesar because he was well aware of the long hours required from him and other union officers and staff. Still, he was in good spirits despite being exhausted after prolonged questioning on the witness stand, but he complained about feeling some weakness when doing his evening exercises. The UFW founder went to bed at between 10 and 10:30 p.m. A union staff member said he later saw a reading light shining from Cesar's room.
The light was still on at 6 a.m. the next morning. That was not seen as unusual. Cesar usually woke up in the early hours of the morning well before dawn to read, write or meditate. However, when he had not come out by 9 a.m., his colleagues entered his bedroom found that Cesar had died in his sleep during the night, according to authorities.
He was found lying on his back with his head turned to the left. His shoes were off and he still wore his clothes from the day before. In his right hand was a book on Native American crafts and there was a peaceful smile on his face.
The Last March With Cesar Chavez
On April 29, 1993, Cesar Estrada Chavez was honored in death by those he led in life. More than 50,000 mourners came to honor the charismatic labor leader at the site of his first public fast in 1968 and the place of his last fast in 1988: the United Farm Workers Delano Field Office at "Forty Acres." It was the largest funeral of any labor leader in the history of the U.S. People came in caravans from Florida to California to pay their respects to a man whose strength was in his simplicity.
Farm workers, family members, friends and union staff took turns standing vigil over the plain pine coffin which held the body of Cesar Chavez. Among the honor guard were many celebrities who had supported Chavez throughout his years of struggle to better the lives of farmworkers throughout America.
Many of the mourners had marched side by side with Chavez during his tumultuous years in the vineyards and farms of America. For this last time, they came to march by the side of the man who had taught them to stand up for their rights, through nonviolent protest and collective bargaining.
Cardinal Roger M. Mahoney, who celebrated the funeral mass, called Chavez "a special prophet for the worlds' farm workers." Pall bearers, including crews of these workers, the Chavez children and grandchildren, then carried their fallen leader, resting at last, from the Memorial Park to Forty Acres.
The death of Chavez marked an era of dramatic changes in American agriculture. His contributions would be eroded, and others would have to shoulder the burden of his work. But, Cesar Chavez, who insisted that those who labor in the earth were entitled to share fairly in the rewards of their toil, would never be forgotten.
As Luis Valdez said, "Cesar, we have come to plant your heart like a seed . . . the farm workers shall harvest in the seed of your memory."
The body of Cesar E Chavez was taken to La Paz, the UFW's California headquarters, by his family and the UFW leadership. He was laid to rest near a bed of roses, in front of his office.
On August 8, 1994, at a White House ceremony, Helen Chavez, Cesar's widow, accepted the Medal of Freedom for her late husband from President Clinton. In the citation accompanying America's highest civilian honor which was awarded posthumously, the President lauded Chavez for having "faced formidable, often violent opposition with dignity and nonviolence and he was victorious. Cesar Chavez left our world better than he found it, and his legacy inspires us still. He was for his own people a Moses figure," the President declared. "The farm workers who labored in the fields and yearned for respect and selfsufficiency pinned their hopes on this remarkable man who, with faith and discipline, soft spoken humility and amazing inner strength, led a very courageous life"
The citation accompanying the award noted how Chavez was a farm worker from childhood who "possessed a deep personal understanding of the plight of migrant workers, and he labored all his years to lift their lives." During his lifetime, Chavez never earned more than $5,000 a year. The late Senator Robert Kennedy called him "one of the heroic figures of our time."
Chavez's successor, UFW President Arturo Rodriguez, thanked the president on behalf of the United Farm Workers and said, "Every day in California and in other states where farm workers are organizing, Cesar Chavez lives in their hearts. Cesar lives wherever Americans' he inspired work nonviolently for social change."