Resources for better coordinating of land use and transportation planning in support of environmental, efficiency, and social justice goals. These resources address parking supply and pricing policies, transit-oriented development, and travel demand management.


Parking Management for Smart Growth, 2015

The average parking space requires approximately 300 square feet of asphalt. That’s the size of a studio apartment in New York or enough room to hold 10 bicycles. Space devoted to parking in growing urban and suburban areas is highly contested—not only from other uses from housing to parklets, but between drivers who feel entitled to easy access. Without parking management, parking is a free-for-all—a competitive sport—with arbitrary winners and losers. Historically drivers have been the overall winners in having free or low-cost parking, while an oversupply of parking has created a hostile environment for pedestrians.

In the last 50 years, parking management has grown from a minor aspect of local policy and regulation to a central position in the provision of transportation access. The higher densities, tight land supplies, mixed land uses, environmental and social concerns, and alternative transportation modes of Smart Growth demand a different approach—actively managed parking.

This book offers a set of tools and a method for strategic parking management so that communities can better use parking resources and avoid overbuilding parking. It explores new opportunities for making the most from every parking space in a sharing economy and taking advantage of new digital parking tools to increase user interaction and satisfaction. Examples are provided of successful approaches for parking management—from Pasadena to London. At its essence, the book provides a path forward for strategic parking management in a new era of tighter parking supplies.

Parking Reform Made Easy, 2013

Today, there are more than three parking spaces for every car in the United States. No one likes searching for a space, but in many areas, there is an oversupply, wasting valuable land, damaging the environment, and deterring development. The problem stems from outdated minimum parking requirements. In this practical guide, I show practitioners how to reform parking requirements in a way that supports planning goals and creates vibrant cities.


Local planners and policymakers, traffic engineers, developers, and community members are actively seeking this information as they institute principles of Smart Growth. But making effective changes requires more than relying on national averages or copying information from neighboring communities. Instead, Willson shows how professionals can confidently create requirements based on local parking data, an understanding of future trends affecting parking use, and clear policy choices.


After putting parking and parking requirements in context, the book offers an accessible tool kit to get started and repair outdated requirements. It looks in depth at parking requirements for multifamily developments, including income-restricted housing, workplaces, and mixed-use, transit-oriented development. Case studies for each type of parking illustrate what works, what doesn’t, and how to overcome challenges. Willson also explores the process of codifying regulations and how to work with stakeholders to avoid political conflicts.


With Parking Reform Made Easy, practitioners learn, step-by-step, how to improve requirements. The result will be higher density, healthier, more energy-efficient, and livable communities. This book will be exceptionally useful for local and regional land use and transportation planners, transportation engineers, real estate developers, citizen activists, and students of transportation planning and urban policy.

Research Reports

Affordable Housing Parking Study Final Report, San Diego, 2011

Travel Characteristics of Residents of Multi-Family Housing in the Inland Empire, 2010

The Pasadena Gold Line: Development Strategies, Local Decisions, and Travel Characteristics along New Rail Line in the Los Angeles Region, Hollie Lund and Richard Willson, Mineta Transportation Institute, 2005.

Travel Characteristics of Transit-Oriented Development in California, Hollie Lund, Robert Cervero, and Richard Willson, Bay Area Rapid Transit District, 2003

Report (pdf)

Appendix (pdf)

Selected Professional Reports

Draft Parking Management Study, Anaheim Regional Transportation Intermodal Center Draft Final Report. (2009) Anaheim, CA: City of Anaheim Department of Public Works.


Parking Demand Analysis for the Vista Canyon Ranch Transit-Oriented Development. (2008) Santa Clarita, CA: JSB - Development.


Parking Management Plan for the Irvine Transportation Center. (2006) Irvine, CA: City of Irvine.

Replacement Parking for Joint Development: An Access Policy Methodology. (2005) San Francisco: Bay Area Rapid Transit District.

Environmental Justice and BART. (2001) San Francisco: Bay Area Rapid Transit District. Supervising author, with Ria Hutabarat, Lisa Young, and Dali Zheng

Five and Ten Year Access Targets in Support of BART's Access and Management and Implementation Policy. (2000) San Francisco: Bay Area Rapid Transit District.

Parking Management Toolkit: Strategies for Action in BART Station Areas. (2000) San Francisco: Bay Area Rapid Transit District.

A Parking Management Policy for BART: Issues and Opportunities. (2000) San Francisco: Bay Area Rapid Transit District.

Technical Report for the Westside Cities Subregion: Parking and Livable Communities. (2000) Westside Cities Subregion and Meyer Mohaddes Associates (with Michael Kodama Planning Consultants).

Local Jurisdiction Parking Requirements: A Survey of Policies and Attitudes. (1996) (With Michael R. Kodama Planning Consultants) Mobile Source Air Pollution Reduction Committee.

Evaluation Report: Glendale TMA Parking Management Program. (1995) (As subconsultant to Crain and Associates of Southern California) Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority.

Selected Journal Articles

“Parking at Affordable Housing: Study Results in San Diego, California.” (2012) Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board: Journal of the Transportation Research Record, No. 2319 Volume 2319: 13-20. (with Terri O’Connor and Samir Hajjiri).


“Parking Demand and Zoning Requirements for Suburban Multifamily Housing.” (2011) Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2245. Planning 2011, Volume 2: 49-55(with Michael Roberts).


“Road Prioritization: The Way Forward for Los Angeles.” (2010) In A. Modarres (Ed.) Los Angeles 2010: Annual State of the City Report. (pp. 67-76). California State University Los Angeles: Pat Brown Institute.


“Commuter Parking Versus Transit-Oriented Development: Evaluation Methodology.” (2007) Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2021.  Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C, pp. 118-125. (with Val Menotti).


“A Re-evaluation of Travel Behavior in California’s TODs.” (2006) Journal of Architecture and Planning Research. 23: 247-263 (with Hollie Lund and Robert Cervero).


“Parking Policy for Transit-Oriented Development: Lessons for Cities, Transit Agencies, and Developers.” (2005) Journal of Public Transit. 8: 79-94.


“Does Discussion Enhance Rationality? Communicative Rationality in Transportation Planning.” (2003) Journal of the American Planning Association. 69: 354 - 367 (with Marianne Payne and Ellen Smith).

 “Reading Between the Regulations: Parking Requirements, Planners’ Perspectives and Transit.” (2000) Journal of Public Transportation. 3: 111-128.

“Parking Pricing Without Tears: Trip Reduction Programs.” (1997) Transportation Quarterly. 51: 79-90.

"Suburban Parking Requirements: A Tacit Policy for Automobile Use and Sprawl." (1995) Journal of the American Planning Association. 66: 29-42.

"Estimating the Travel and Parking Demand Effects of Employer-Paid Parking." (1992) Regional Science and Urban Economics. 22: 133-145.

"Employer-Paid Parking: The Problem and a Proposed Solution." (1992) (with D. Shoup) Transportation Quarterly. 46: 169-192.

"Parking Subsidies and Travel Choices: Assessing the Evidence." (1990) (With D. Shoup) Transportation. 17: 141-157.

"Parking Subsidies and the Drive Alone Commuter: New Evidence and Implications." (1988) Transportation Research Record 1181, Urban Traffic Systems and Parking. pp. 50-56.

"Rideshare Requirements in Downtown Los Angeles: Processes For Achieving Private Sector Commitments." (1986) (With P. Roche) Transportation Research Record 1082, Innovations in Ridesharing. pp. 1-6.




Department of Urban and Regional Planning, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona