Molly McPup

Introduction to Research Methods in Political Science:
The POWERMUTT* Project
(for use with SPSS)

*Politically-Oriented Web-Enhanced Research Methods for Undergraduates — Topics & Tools
Resources for introductory research methods courses in political science and related disciplines


CODEBOOK: Countries Data (countries.sav)

Source (including variable descriptions): Except as noted, the CIA World Factbook (Washington D.C.: U.S. Central Intelligence Agency) The online version of this publication is updated weekly, and was accessed in late November and early December, 2012. This file includes data for all entities listed as independent states, except for the Holy See (Vatican City), plus Taiwan.

Missing Data: sysmis (all variables)

Note: Some variables are defined differently by different countries and data for a given variable may be from different years.

Variable Name/Variable Label

name: Country name
region: Region of World
population: Population
density: Population per square mile
migration: Net migration
lifeexp: Live expectancy at birth
fertility: Total fertility rate
obesity: Adult obesity rate
education: Public expenditure on education as a percent of GDP
military: Military expenditure as a percent of GDP
gdpcapita: Gross Domestic Product per capita
unemployment: Unemployment rate
inequality: Inequality of income distribution
inflation: Inflation rate
debt: Debt
exports: Exports
imports: Imports
carbon: Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
internet: Internet users
religion: General notes
   christian: Percent Christian
   moslem: Percent Moslem
   buddist: Percent Buddist
   hindu: Percent Hindu
   other: Percent other religion
   none: Percent non-religious
polrights: Political Rights Index
civillib: Civil Liberties Index
ifreedom: Internet Freedom Index
corruption: Corruption Perception Index


Country name


Derived from categories in Yahoo at Accessed June 18, 2013.

1  Africa (excluding Middle East) 
2  Asia (excluding Middle East) 
3  Caribbean
4  Central America
5  Europe
6  Middle East
7  North America
8  Oceania 
9  South America




Population per square mile


Percent below poverty line. National estimates of the percentage of the population falling below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.


Net Migration Rate.
The difference between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration (e.g., 3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the country as net emigration (e.g., -9.26 migrants/1,000 population). The net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the overall level of population change. The net migration rate does not distinguish between economic migrants, refugees, and other types of migrants nor does it distinguish between lawful migrants and undocumented migrants.


Life expectancy at birth. The average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future. The entry includes total population as well as the male and female components. Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages.


Total fertility rate. The average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age. The total fertility rate (TFR) is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman. This indicator shows the potential for population change in the country. A rate of two children per woman is considered the replacement rate for a population, resulting in relative stability in terms of total numbers.


Obesity rate. the percent of a country's population considered to be obese. Obesity is defined as an adult having a Body Mass Index (BMI) greater to or equal to 30.0. BMI is calculated by taking a person's weight in kg and dividing it by the person's squared height in meters.


Public expenditure on education as a percent of GDP.


Military expenditure as percent of GDP.


Gross Domestic Product per capita. GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.


Unemployment rate. The percent of the labor force that is without jobs.


Inequality of income distribution. The degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the richest. The index is the ratio of (a) the area between a country's Lorenz curve and the 45 degree helping line to (b) the entire triangular area under the 45 degree line. The more nearly equal a country's income distribution, the closer its Lorenz curve to the 45 degree line and the lower its Gini index. The more unequal a country's income distribution, the farther its Lorenz curve from the 45 degree line and the higher its Gini index. If income were distributed with perfect equality, the Lorenz curve would coincide with the 45 degree line and the index would be zero; if income were distributed with perfect inequality, the Lorenz curve would coincide with the horizontal axis and the right vertical axis and the index would be 100.


Inflation rate. The annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices


Public debt. Government debt as percent of GDP.


Exports. The total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.


Imports. The total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.


Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy. The total amount of carbon dioxide, measured in metric tons, released by burning fossil fuels in the process of producing and consuming energy.


Internet users. The number of users within a country that access the Internet. Statistics vary from country to country and may include users who access the Internet at least several times a week to those who access it only once within a period of several months.

general notes

The essay from which these data are taken (, accessed November 27, 2012) draws on a wide variety of sources, resulting in inconsistencies of classification both within and between countries. Because of double-counting and other factors, percentages for different religious categories within a county do not always total to 100, and in a few cases are well above or below that number. Note also that, where the essay provides a range, sometimes a very wide one, the midpoint has been used here. France does not include overseas departments, and Tanzania does not include Zanzibar.


Percent Christian, 2007.


Percent Moslem, 2007.


Percent Buddist, 2007.


Percent Hindu, 2007.


Percent Other religion, 2007.


Percent non-religious, 2007.


Political Rights Index, 2012 (1 = highest; 7 = lowest)
Source: “Freedom House Country Rankings,” Accessed November 20, 2012.


Civil Liberty Index, 2012 (1 = highest; 7 = lowest) Source: “Freedom House Country Rankings,” Accessed November 20, 2012.


Internet Freedom Index Index, 2012 (0 = highest; 100 = lowest)
Source: “Freedom House Country Rankings,” Accessed November 20, 2012.


Corruption Perceptions Index, 2012. A measure of the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians.
(0 = most corrupt score possible; 100 = least corrupt score possible).
Source: “Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2012.” Accessed December 5, 2012.


Last updated June 28, 2013 .
© 2003---2013  John L. Korey.  Licensed under a  Description: Creative Commons License Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.