Minority Identity Development Model
- PRE-ENCOUNTER STAGE--Individuals are programmed
perceive and think of the world as being non-minority or anti-
minority and act in ways that devalue their minority development.
- ENCOUNTER STAGE--Individuals begin to gain awareness of
what it means to be minority, and they begin to validate
themselves in terms of minority identity.
- IMMERSION STAGE--Individuals reject all nonminority values
and fully immerse themselves in minority culture.
- INTERNALIZATION STAGE--Individuals develop a secure and
self-confident minority identity and are also comfortable expressing
preferences and interests for experiences from non-minority cultures.
Majority Identity Devleopment Model
- PRE-EXPOSURE STAGE--Little thought has been
multicultural issues or to one's own role as a majority group member
in a racist and oppressive society.
- EXPOSURE STAGE--The individual is confronted with the realities
of racism and prejudice. He or she is forced to examine his or her
own role as a majority group member. In this examination, it is learned
how the European-American view has been taken for granted as the
"proper" (only) view. Anger and guilt arise. Anger because it has always
been assumed that past ways of conceptualizing the world have been
thought to be fair and just. Guilt because the person realized his or her
naive acceptance of the "fairness" view, and that he or she has been
fostering subtle racism.
- ZEALOT-DEFENSIVE STAGE--One of two reactions: Become a
zealot for minority causes or become defensive about majority view
and perhaps even withdraw from finding out about multicultural views
altogether. In becoming a zealot, the person is reacting to his or her own
--or the majority culture's collective--guilt. It tends to be other-focused
rather than self-focused. In becoming defensive, the person either
attempts to have contact with majority culture individuals, or he or she
tries to defend majority culture values by pointing out all of the
"concessions" made by the culture to minority cultures.
- INTEGRATION STAGE--The overly strong feelings of the Zealot-
Defensive Stage subside, and a more balanced view takes its place.
Instead, a deeper appreciation of one's own culture allows one to have
a secure, self-confident identity, allowing for appreciation of other
cultures. One is able to accept differences both intellectually and
Atkinson et al.'s Racial/Cultural Identity
- Stage 1--Conformity
- Stage 2--Dissonance and Appreciating
- Stage 3--Resistance and Immersion
- Stage 4--Introspection
- Stage 5--Integrative Awareness
Helms' White Racial Identity Development Model
1. Contact Status--oblivious to and unaware
2. Disintegration Status--conflicted over irresolvable racial moral dilemmas
3. Reintegration Status--regression to White superiority and minority inferiority
4. Pseudoindependence Status--painful or insightful encounter or event that
jars the person from the reintegration status
5. Immerion/emersion Status--an increasing willingness to confront one's
6. Autonomy Status--values diversity, is no longer fearful, intimidated, or
uncomfortable with discussions of race, and is active in seeking
Cass's (1979) Gay and Lesbian Identity
- Stage 1--First awareness. Identity
- Stage 2--Awareness. Identity comparison. Alienation from others.
- Stage 3--Identity acceptance. Transition from tolerance to acceptance.
- Stage 4--Identity integration. Identity pride and synthesis.
Biracial Identity Development Model (Poston,
- Stage 1--Personal identity. Identity independent of ethnic background.
- Stage 2--Choice of group categorization. Pushed to choose one group of
orientation. Factors of influence (from Hall, 1980): (1) status; (2) social
support; (3) personal.
- Stage 3--Enmeshment/denial. Confusion & guilt over having to choose
one ethnicity over the other. Self-hate.
- Stage 4--Appreciation. Beginning to appreciate multiple identity &
broaden their RGO.
- Stage 5--Integration. More fully appreciated multicultural identity and
Multiracial/ethnic Identity (Root, 1990, 2003)
- Acceptance of the identity society assigns.
Passive resolution of identity
status. May be positive, but often is tenuous.
- Identification with both racial groups. Active resolution of identity status.
May be idealistic but not available in certain parts of the country.
- Identification with a single racial group. Active resolution of identity status.
Again, may not be available in certain parts of the country.
- Identification as a new racial group. Strong kinship to other biracial persons.
positive resolution if the person is not trying to hide or reject any aspect of
- Symbolic racial group. Hyperdescent identification, only recognizing one's
racial heritage intellectually. (2003)
It was strange to try to be black and it was
strange to try to be Jewish . . . In
the time period around junior high shcool, I was really ashamed of being black.
I couldn't relate socially to the kids that I knew were black. I didn't talk to
them. . . . Like every other adolescent, I was interested in [romantic]
relationships with girls. It was hard when I [was attracted to] white girls
because I had to think about my racial identity . . . and that affected my
ability to enjoy my social life. . . . but we didn't date black girls.
My change in racial identity . . . came since
I've been in college. My desire to
live as an African American came first as a personal need and then as an
intellectual thought. When I got here, it was like a switch. . . . At 18 years old
you get to start over with who you're going to associate with. . . . What is it
like to live as a black person? I think living as a black person . . . well,
personally it is being around black people. That's my personal definition. It's
that almost all of my friends are black. My girlfriend is black. I've only dated
black women since I've been in college.
And my mom was wondering "[When] are you
going to date a white person?
. . . She feels hurt because she sees me identifying with my African American
cultural heritage . . . especially when we have a conversation about who I'm
dating, and almost everybody I bring home is black. Almost everybody. And all
the pictures on my wall. Almost everybody is black. . . . Something that I
noticed when I told [black students] that [my boyfriend] is Puerto Rican is
that I had to back it up with "He's Afro-Puerto Rican." He "acts black" and
"looks black," too.
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