Mental Health


Culture and Diagnosis

- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
- Culture and the Expression of Symptoms
- Cultural Group Differences
- Gender Differences
- Culture-Bound Syndromes

Culture and the Treatment of Mental Disorders

- Undertulization of Mental Health Services
- Barriers to Treatment
  ~ Culture-Bound Values as Barriers
  ~ Class-Bound Values as Barriers
  ~ Language as a Barrier
- Experience with Racism
- Culturally Sensitive Therapeutic Approaches
- Training and Multicultural Competence
- Culture Matching
- Culture-Specific Therapies


Sue & Zane (1987) Reconceptualization on Ethnic Matching in Therapy






Ascribed Credibility Low High
Low Client avoids treatment; if already in treatment, premature termination likely. Client avoids treatment; if in treatment, expectations exceeded and may stay in.
High Client likely to enter treatment; high expectations are not realized so may terminate prematurely. Client likely to enter treatment; high expectations are realized by skills of therapist.


Seven Principles of Kwanzaa
(Nzugo Saba)

- Umoja--Unity
- Kujichagulia--Self-determination
- Ujima--Collective work and responsibility
- Ujamaa--Cooperative economics
- Nia--Purpose
- Kuumba--Creativity


Afrocentric Principles

- Spirituality--"Man" and spirit are one
- Interconnectedness--collectivism; interconnection, leading to an "extended self";
  "I am because we are; we are, therefore, I am" (Mbiti, 1970)
- Harmony--holism; unity of being between the material and the spiritual. Diunital
  philosophy (unity of opposities, e.g., male/female, good/evil, life/death)


Afrocentric Perspective in Psychology

- Akbar (1981)
  ~ Alien Self Disorder
  ~ Anti-Self Disorder
  ~ Self Destructive Disorders
  ~ Organic Disorders
- Azibo (1989)
  ~ Genetic Blackness
  ~ Psychological Blackness
- Baldwin (1981)--importance of an identity representing one's true, innate African core


Latino/a American Cultural Values

- Respeto: Respect, deference, and obedience to elders
- Machismo: Courage, family responsibility; also could involve antisocial and
    narcissistic characteristics
- Marianismo: Spirituality, enduring suffering, sexual purity, placing one's children's
    welfare above one's own
- Personalismo: Importance of interpersonal relationships and sensitivity
- Familismo: Importance of immediate and extended family
- Religiosity: Belief and worship of a higher being, fatalism
- Pobre pero honesto: Poor but honest for both the individual and the family
- Dignidad: Dignity. Despite being poor, there is dignity in being honest and a good person


Characteristics of Asian Americans

- Patience
- Gentleness
- Being well-mannered
- Cooperation
- Being accommodating, conciliatory, and cooperative rather than confrontational
- Blending in with the group rather than distinguishing oneself for either good or bad behavior
- Humility and modesty
- Withholding free expression of feelings
- Suppression of conflict
- Avoiding potentially divisive arguments and debates
- Communicating indirectly
- Refraining from openly challenging others' perspectives
- Nonverbal communication
- Conformity to conventional behavior
- Face saving/face giving behaviors
- Shame more important than guilt


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