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Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Formation on Traditional and Boron Metal Alloys

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Jeyashree Alagarsamy, Cindy Toscano, Kevin Robles.
Faculty Mentor(s): Steve Alas

Abstract: Higher biocompatibility and corrosion resistant biomaterials are more frequently being test-implanted for a wide range of purposes. However, surgery-related infection and implant microbe-colonization is generally the most common complication. When bacteria adhere to and proliferate on the biomaterial surface, the bacteria produce extracellular polymeric substances, primarily polysaccharides, which mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and form a biofilm. Our long-term goal is to extend the life of a prosthetic implant by identifying new metal alloys that are less susceptible to bacterial colonization. Using one of the major biofilm producing bacteria commonly found to colonize surgical implants, Staphylococcus epidermidis, we investigated the biocompatibility of novel metal alloys with regard to their susceptibility to biofilm propagation. The Experimental biometal alloys examined were stainless steel (SS), commercially pure titanium (CPTi), titanium alloy (Ti64), dental grade titanium (Ty) and titanium-boron metal alloys. Biofilm formation was analyzed using crystal violet staining and fluorescent microscopy. Ideal experimental conditions were obtained using flasks or a biofilm reactor. Biofilm reactor experiments were performed with (continuous culture) or without a constant infusion of growth media (batch culture) during biofilm formation. Results indicate that the Ty alloy permits less biofilm formation than traditional metals. Titanium-boron metal alloys, Ti64+0.04% B and Ti64+0.1% B, showed the least amount of biofilm compared to other metal alloys. Thus, we show that, compared to traditional metals such as stainless steel and pure titanium, the Ty, Ti64+0.04% B and Ti64+0.1% B alloys may be better alternatives as a modern prosthetic biometals.

The regulatory architecture of the RCCD1 ovarian cancer risk locus as revealed by 4C-seq data

RISE Session
Time: 2:15 PM
Location: University Library: 4th Floor Special Events Room

Authors: Mark Alonzo.
Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Peter Arensburger

Abstract: Presenter abstracts are available in the session program provided by MBRS RISE.

Alternative Technical Concepts Program-Level Standards in Two State Transportation Agencies

Engineering and Computer Science
Time: 10:45 AM
Location: University Library: 1822

Authors: Alyssa Aulicino.
Faculty Mentor(s): Ghada Gad

Abstract: The increased use of Alternative Technical Concepts (ATCs) by Departments of Transportation (DOTs) has created a need to understand how to implement them at the program level, including issues like which projects to implement them on, how they are defined, and liability considerations. The purpose of this paper is, thus, to conduct a comparative analysis of two DOTs Design-Build (DB) programs to identify ATC aspects common to both and develop a list of project characteristics that commend ATCs’ inclusion in a DB contract, as well as a set of effective practices found in both. To achieve this objective, the case studies were conducted on two DOTs with varying levels of experience in ATC implementation; California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) which implemented ATCs in 2010, and Washington DOT (WSDOT) that started in 2003. Case studies included analyzing the program and project level processes, and encompassed both interviews and content analysis of the Request for Proposals, evaluation process, and submitted ATCs. Results show that experienced DOTs developed a standardized ATC procurement process, including how ATCs are incorporated, manuals, and training guides that could be further enhanced by the less experienced DOTs project selection decisions. These experiences could be helpful for DOTs in making decisions on including ATCs in their DB contracts, as well as best practices that could be implemented in their procurement process.

ALLELOPATHIC IMPACTS OF SCHINUS MOLLE (PERUVIAN PEPPER TREE) ON INVASVIE AND NATIVE PLANT COMMUNITIES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

Biological and Agricultural Sciences
Time: 10:30 AM
Location: University Library: 1823

Authors: David Banuelas.
Faculty Mentor(s): Erin Questad, Edward Bobich

Abstract: Since Schinus molle (California pepper tree) was introduced to Southern California in 1830, it has escaped ornamental cultivation becoming invasive. Prior to this study, it had not been had determined if S. molle possess the same potential for allelopathy or a legacy effect in California as does S. terebinthifolius in Florida. However, S. molle is known to be allelopathic against crops and associated weeds. In Mexico, leaf litter and soil of S. molle exhibits stronger chemical inhibition than females. The first objective of this study, therefore, was to find the role of S. molle in restoration, specifically if chemical inhibition is selective against native or non-native plant species. Secondly, we sought to uncover any differential allelopathy amongst both sexes of S. molle. Two separate experiments were conducted to investigate S. molle allelopathy and potential legacy effect. The first applied mulches from both genders of S. molle to three native and three invasive plant species. The second experiment sowed the same species in soil collected from both sexes of S. molle. We expected the male mulch (staminate flower and leaves) and soil would have a greater inhibitory effect on native and non-native plants species compared to the control. The results of this study found male pepper tree mulch stimulated shoot growth in four out of six species tested (A. intermedia, B. nigra, B. madritensis, and S. pulchra) and did not have a strong effect on germination. Nor did this study find strong evidence that S. molle and S. terebinthifolius share the same impetus for allelopathy or legacy effects. In fact, S. molle may facilitate native understory plants based on field observations in three locations. Thus, our study highlights the need of future research to determine the role of both genders in restoration and management.

Pollen magnetofection: developing a novel transformation technique in Aquilegia coerulea (Columbines)

RISE Session
Time: 11:00 AM
Location: University Library: 4th Floor Special Events Room

Authors: Summer Blanco.
Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Bharti Sharma

Abstract: Presenter abstracts are available in the session program provided by MBRS RISE.

Autonomous Navigation of UAVs in the Indoor Environment for Search and Rescue Missions

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Sania Esa, Tristan Cady, Felipe Borja, Prokkawn Majumdar.
Faculty Mentor(s): Subodh Bhandari

Abstract: This presentation talks about a system for autonomous navigation and target recognition for indoor search and rescue missions using small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The use of lightweight multicopters makes them ideal for maneuvering through tight spaces and locating victims in shorter time. Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques and Collision Avoidance Systems (CAS) are used to navigate the vehicle in the GPS-denied environments. SLAM, CAS, and target recognition software can help rescuers locate victims for disaster relief. Using a LIDAR and camera, it is possible to create a map of an indoor environment and determining and keeping track of the UAV's in the constructed map. The victims can be identified using onboard image processing. An RPLidar is used in conjunction with HectorSLAM algorithm localization and mapping. A Mobius Actioncam is used for the victim identification. The identification software runs on an NVidia Jetson TX1 microcomputer. The Jetson TX1 communicates with the onboard Pixhawk flight controller, while also transmitting data to a ground station using Xbee radio modules. Neural networks are used for the identification of victims as well as for collision avoidance with the wall so that the UAVs navigate the indoor environment safely. Simulation and test results will be presented. Work is underway to test the overall system in flight for realistic search and rescue missions in the indoor environment.

Doridina: an RNA-Seq Analysis

RISE Session
Time: 9:45 AM
Location: University Library: 4th Floor Special Events Room

Authors: Eric Breslau.
Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Ángel A. Valdés

Abstract: Presenter abstracts are available in the session program provided by MBRS RISE.

3D Mapping and Integrated Collision Avoidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Engineering and Computer Science
Time: 11:00 AM
Location: University Library: 1822

Authors: Thomas Elemy, Josh McGinnis, Joseph Orosco, Eduardo Cadena-Perales.
Faculty Mentor(s): Subodh Bhandari

Abstract: This presentation discusses utilizing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and LiDAR technologies as a means for creating three-dimensional maps along with allowing for the detection of obstacles so that mid-air collisions may be avoided. This topic of research has many practical applications with disaster response being just one of them. Having a UAV safely navigate and produce an updated map of the affected area will serve as one invaluable piece of information that response teams will have at their disposal. A DJI S1000 Octocopter has been equipped with a Pixhawk, providing autonomous control of the UAV. A VLP-16 LiDAR along with an Xsens GPS aided inertial measurement unit (IMU) supply the data that is processed using an onboard Intel NUC board. The resulting data allows for a three-dimensional map to be created following post-processing using an Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm and the CloudCompare software. The UAV was structurally modified to secure a 3D printed LiDAR mount at a 40˚ inclination which provides optimum results while keeping the center of gravity at an acceptable position. The open-source application, VeloView, was used for gathering LiDAR data for testing purposes. Work is currently underway to increase the accuracy of the created 3D maps with the combined LiDAR and IMU data. In addition, the integration of obstacle avoidance is being researched. More tests will be conducted using LiDAR and IMU data to increase the accuracy of the generated 3D maps. Simulated results captured with the VeloView application will be presented.

Autonomous Navigation of UAVs in the Indoor Environment for Search and Rescue Missions

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Sania Esa, Tristan Cady, Felipe Borja, Prokkawn Majumdar.
Faculty Mentor(s): Subodh Bhandari

Abstract: This presentation talks about a system for autonomous navigation and target recognition for indoor search and rescue missions using small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The use of lightweight multicopters makes them ideal for maneuvering through tight spaces and locating victims in shorter time. Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques and Collision Avoidance Systems (CAS) are used to navigate the vehicle in the GPS-denied environments. SLAM, CAS, and target recognition software can help rescuers locate victims for disaster relief. Using a LIDAR and camera, it is possible to create a map of an indoor environment and determining and keeping track of the UAV's in the constructed map. The victims can be identified using onboard image processing. An RPLidar is used in conjunction with HectorSLAM algorithm localization and mapping. A Mobius Actioncam is used for the victim identification. The identification software runs on an NVidia Jetson TX1 microcomputer. The Jetson TX1 communicates with the onboard Pixhawk flight controller, while also transmitting data to a ground station using Xbee radio modules. Neural networks are used for the identification of victims as well as for collision avoidance with the wall so that the UAVs navigate the indoor environment safely. Simulation and test results will be presented. Work is underway to test the overall system in flight for realistic search and rescue missions in the indoor environment.

THERE'S MORE TO YOUR GUT THAN INSTINCTS---INVESTIGATING THE BACTERIAL PROTEIN BAIH

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Laurin Randle, Amanda L. Cao.
Faculty Mentor(s): Kathryn McCulloch

Abstract: In humans, bile acids are recycled from the liver to the intestines and then back to liver in a process known as enterohepatic circulation. This process allows for nutrients to be reabsorbed and helps regulate metabolism and homeostasis. However, some bile acids are passed on to the intestines and specific bacteria within the gut produce harmful products from these bile acids. These harmful products are formed in the process of 7α-dehydroxylation and result in toxic acids that can lead to a variety of disease and even cancer. Thus, the 7α-dehydroxylation pathway is a large topic for study due to its link to discovering more on factors affecting human health regarding the gut. This study focuses on a gene, baiH, within the bile acid inducible operon that encodes enzymes within the 7α-dehydroxylation pathway. The nature of this study involves the recombinant over expression and purification of BaiH from E.coli. Previous research has characterized BaiH as alike to flavoproteins which reduce α/β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. The gene has been known to perform oxidative reduction chemistry on stereo-specific NAD(H)-dependent 7β-hydroxy-3-oxo-Δ4-cholenoic acids. This study is a continuation of a previous experiment involving the characterization of the gene baiH. The methods of purification include ion exchange and size exclusion and each method is analyzed for its efficiency. The purification will allow the isolation of the target protein, determination of the activity of the protein present using an assay, possibly crystallization and overall comparison to previous work done that utilized other purification methods.

Geospatial Technology and its Applications

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Lawon Carney.
Faculty Mentor(s): Ahmed Elaksher

Abstract: Geospatial Technology and its Applications Poster and Creative Works Showcase Authors: Lawon Carney Faculty Mentor: Dr. Ahmed F. Elaksher Abstract: The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate the advantages of Geo-Spatial Technology and the different tools we use. When using this technology, we aim to obtain the most efficient and approximate information on any studied area. Geospatial hardware includes Unmanned Aerial Vehicle systems(UAV), Digital Elevation Models (DEM), Light Detection and Ranging systems (LIDAR), and Global Positioning Systems (GPS). These tools give the ability to understand elevation, hydrology, and stockpile volumes of land. All of which are important elements when surveying land. My research here will demonstrate the understanding of the technology and how we incorporate it in the field.

Collision Avoidance System for Fixed-Wing UAVs using ADS-B Sensors

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Margaux Retherford, Mitchell Caudle, Grace Lewis.
Faculty Mentor(s): Subodh Bhandari

Abstract: The integration of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) into the national airspace system presents itself with a myriad of technical problems. One of the key requirements for this integration is the human equivalent level of safety, which requires the ability to detect and avoid other aircraft/obstacles in their flight path so that the UAVs complete their mission without any loss or damage to other aircraft or property. This presentation talks about the use of ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance- Broadcast) transponders for detection of collision of other similarly equipped aircraft/UAVs. ADS-B transponders can receive and broadcast global position and velocities among other pertinent information in a 100-nautical mile radius. This research used Ping-2020 ADS-B transponders for the collision detection. The collision detection and avoidance is first tested in software-in-the-loop simulation, which also uses the flight controller, Ardupilot, and ADS-B transponders in the loop. MAVproxoy, a UAV ground station software package, is used to communicate between in the autopilot and simulation environment via MAVLink. FlightGear flight simulator is used to visualize the motion of the UAVs. The research uses two fixed-wing aircraft equipped with Pixhawk autopilots, which allow autonomous waypoint navigation. The collision avoidance algorithms use a three-step system of detect, predict, and avoid. The algorithm calculates and sends the waypoints for collision avoidance to the autopilot. Using the kinematic equations, the UAV velocities can be calculated from the information received from GPS sensors, and future positions can be predicted. The collision avoidance algorithm is tested using the incoming information from real-time aircraft.

Finding Harmony in Security: An Exploration of EEG and Music for Authentication

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Joseph Cauthen.
Faculty Mentor(s): Mohammad Husain

Abstract: Electroencephalography (EEG) has been researched as a potential biometric for almost two decades. The most promising techniques to obtain reliable authentication credentials have been the use of evoked potentials, or the process of measuring the change in neurological activity induced by introducing the subject to a stimulus. Research in which the stimuli are visual have yielded accuracy rates approaching those of other popular biometrics. However, if EEG authentication was to become a viable biometric, visual stimuli has practical drawbacks. Using evoked potentials, this study investigates the efficacy of auditory stimuli, more specifically music, instead. Using statistical analysis on the time-frequency readings of 5 participants this study seeks features of musically evoked potentials that have the necessary properties for authentication.

A Comparison of Advanced Oxidation Effectiveness with Hydrogen Peroxide and UV in Solar and Synthetic Systems

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Alejandro Cerano-Lopez, Paola Nieto-ArredondoEllen Chan.
Faculty Mentor(s): Monica Palomo

Abstract: Adverse health and ecosystem concerns have increased from remnant trace organics in municipal wastewater effluent1. Long-term exposure to trace organics can cause cancer, reproductive system damage, and major organ diseases2. Additional treatments such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are used to degrade this trace organic pollutants, however current treatments are not cost and time efficient. Advanced oxidation processes like H2O2/ UV irradiance are investigated on their efficiency to decompose trace organics of wastewater samples. Two non-toxic trace organic substances dissolved in water were treated with high ultraviolet light in order to evaluate the decomposition of the contaminants. Two sets of experiments were conducted with hydrogen peroxide to oxidize the organic contaminants. One treatment involved using a lab-scale solar UV simulator with a 120 watt lamp at 254 nm. The second treatment exposed solution mixtures to UV sunlight. A spectrophotometer with UV-visible range detection was used to determine concentration of contaminants.This study's objective is to verify that AOP via H2O2/UV is a preferred method to remove trace organics. Implementing this method will lead to more resource efficient treatments resulting in higher water quality subsequently improving ecosystem health.

A Comparison of Advanced Oxidation Effectiveness with Hydrogen Peroxide and UV in Solar and Synthetic Systems

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Alejandro Cerano-Lopez, Paola Nieto-ArredondoEllen Chan.
Faculty Mentor(s): Monica Palomo

Abstract: Adverse health and ecosystem concerns have increased from remnant trace organics in municipal wastewater effluent1. Long-term exposure to trace organics can cause cancer, reproductive system damage, and major organ diseases2. Additional treatments such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are used to degrade this trace organic pollutants, however current treatments are not cost and time efficient. Advanced oxidation processes like H2O2/ UV irradiance are investigated on their efficiency to decompose trace organics of wastewater samples. Two non-toxic trace organic substances dissolved in water were treated with high ultraviolet light in order to evaluate the decomposition of the contaminants. Two sets of experiments were conducted with hydrogen peroxide to oxidize the organic contaminants. One treatment involved using a lab-scale solar UV simulator with a 120 watt lamp at 254 nm. The second treatment exposed solution mixtures to UV sunlight. A spectrophotometer with UV-visible range detection was used to determine concentration of contaminants.This study's objective is to verify that AOP via H2O2/UV is a preferred method to remove trace organics. Implementing this method will lead to more resource efficient treatments resulting in higher water quality subsequently improving ecosystem health.

Thermographic Image Evaluation of Canine Limbs

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Ryan Chang, Claire Kwon.
Faculty Mentor(s): Cord Brundage

Abstract: Thermographic imaging is a diagnostic imaging technique that captures cutaneous thermal patterns generated by emission of heat from the body. The heat radiation emitted from the tissue of the animals is translated into thermal images with a thermographic imaging camera. The goal of this research project is to determine the normal range of thermographic values for the hind limb region of dogs. Thermographic images were taken in a temperature standardized location with a FLIR B400 thermographic camera of dogs (n= 40) lined up next to a background (typically a wall) and kept still for images to be taken of both the right and left lateral sides of their body. The images were then analyzed using the FLIR Tools application to identify average temperature patterns along the lateral surface of the limbs. Thermographic imaging in the veterinary field is a new area of interest and has the potential to be used further in veterinary medicine and treatment.


Thermographic Evaluation of Canine Torso Thermal Patterns

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Claire Kwon, Ryan Chang.
Faculty Mentor(s): Cord Brundage

Abstract: Infrared thermography (IRT) is a technological procedure that allows for the detection of real-time changes in surface temperatures. Immediate visualization of animal surface temperatures gives insight to detect physiological responses as the body regulates its temperature. To determine expected thermal patterns in normal, healthy canines (Canis lupus familaris), thermal images were acquired with the use of a FLIR B400 infrared thermal camera. Each canine (n= 40) acclimated to rooms with ambient temperatures that ranged from 21°C to 25°C for 15 minutes. At the end of the acclimation period, canines were positioned at no more than 15°C from the camera to exhibit full lateral sides of the body. Images were taken at a minimum distance of at least 0.4 m. Surface mean temperatures of the region of interest (ROI), the torso, were then analyzed in the horizontal and vertical direction to determine horizontal and vertical thermal patterns of the ROI. An "anchor point" was determined at the lowest point on the curvature of the spine to accommodate for the differences in pixel area ratio attributed by individual characteristics of the canines. Observations from this study reveal an increase in average surface temperatures horizontally across the torso while more variation is exhibited in surface temperatures present in the vertical direction in canines.

Characterization of Oxidized Metals

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Samantha Villanueva, Isabella Chu, Samuel Navarette.
Faculty Mentor(s): Vilupanur Ravi

Abstract: Metallic materials such as stainless steel can become brittle and weak when corroded. The rate of corrosion increases at high temperatures, and in turn, the effect of corroding or oxidizing the metal can lead to a rapid loss of engineering function and result in equipment failure in industrial conditions. Stainless steel is of particular interest because it is used in many applications and fields. Stainless steel also passivates, meaning that it produces a protective oxide layer that helps prevent further corrosion. Understanding the nature of these oxide films will be helpful in developing ways to improve corrosion protection. This project had the objective of characterizing thin oxide films through optical/visual methods and microscopy. The results will be reported and discussed.

Deoxydehydration Reaction Catalyzed by Dioxomolybdenum Complexes of Salan Ligands

Physical and Mathematical Sciences
Time: 9:45 AM
Location: University Library: 1814

Authors: Garrit Clabaugh.
Faculty Mentor(s): Alex John

Abstract: Currently, our material and energy needs are met primarily using fossil resources. Petrochemicals, for example, obtained from the refining of crude oil are used as fuel and for making chemicals/materials. Since fossil resources are present only in finite amounts, a transition from fossil to other renewable resources is a necessity. In the project, we explore the possibility of using biomass as a renewable resource. However, biomass such as lignocellulose is highly functionalized (oxygenated) while fossil resources are mostly hydrocarbons in nature. Techniques used to reduce biomass include deoxydehydration (DODH), which converts vicinal diols to olefins, and dehydration reactions, which also converts alcohols into olefins. The most efficient catalysts discovered so far for DODH are based on the rare transition metal, rhenium (Re). These catalysts give outstanding yields of converting substrates -which mimic the complexity of biomass- into alkenes, but with a downside of being absurdly expensive. Molybdenum (Mo) on the other hand is far from scarce and is significantly cheaper than rhenium, with the downside of decreased yields. We are exploring the potential of using molybdenum complexes (LMoO2) supported over salan ligands (L) in catalyzing the DODH reaction. More specifically, we want to see how changing the ligand backbone from (N,N'-H2)LMoO2 to (N,N'-Me2)LMoO2 in these complexes affects catalytic efficiency.

Electrochemical characterization of a titanium alloy - effect of pH

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Diana Costescu.
Faculty Mentor(s): Vilupanur Ravi

Abstract: Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used as implants in the human body. This is because of their advantageous mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. The alloy that is most commonly used is Ti-6Al-4V which is a titanium-based material containing 6 mass % of aluminum and 4 mass % of vanadium with the rest (90 mass %) comprised of titanium. Although this alloy has been in use for a while, it is important to understand their stability in the body because of the increasingly longer life expectancies of the population as a whole. A problem of importance is the discharge of metal particles into the tissue encompassing the implant, which can cause adverse reactions in the body. It is well known that the pH in the vicinity of an implant can vary quite dramatically during and immediately after surgery. These shifts in pH can cause a local increase in the rate of corrosion. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of three different pH levels on the corrosion behavior of Ti-6Al-4V in a phosphate buffered saline solution utilizing electrochemical methods. The results will be reported and discussed.

Eye Tracking Data Analysis and Application

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Jessie Uyan, Irvin Cruz.
Faculty Mentor(s): Sampath Jayarathna

Abstract: By using biometrics the eye movement that can be analyzed to determine if a subject has difficulty learning. The recording of eye movement is done by using an eye tracking machine. The eye tracker we are using is the GazePoint GP3 for this research. Subject's eye movements are being recorded as stimuli that simulates a learning experiences are shown to them. The machine then records raw data from the participant such as the timestamps and coordinates of where that subject was looking during the simulation. We process this data through an algorithm, the 2-D Oculomotor Plant Mathematical Model (2DOPMM), in order to separate the raw data into the main eye movement types such as fixations, gaze following, or saccades. Our focus being in fixations and saccades. From this a subset of data, a feature-set can be extracted measuring characteristics such as amount of fixations, duration, and length of both types eye movements. In order to obtain results, a large amount of feature sets will be collected in order to create a baseline of what eye characteristics define a problem with learning. With integration into concepts such as machine learning we may apply these feature-sets to determine if a person may have difficulties in a learning environment. From this we can then bring focus and attention to those with learning disabilities to better improve their educational quality.

Poetry & Art Session
Time: 2:00 PM
Location: University Library: 1808

Authors: John Danho.

Abstract: John Danho is the lead editor and lead art editor of Pomona Valley Review's 12th edition. He's graduated with his MA in English from Cal Poly Pomona this spring and is an avid player of D&D, is one of the hosts of LVL Up, was winner of the 2018 Ted Pugh Poetry Prize for his poem Sending, and has had poetry published both in previous issues of Pomona Valley Review and HyeBred Magazine.

Does urbanization affect oxidative stress and aging in the California Towhee (Melozone crissalis)?

RISE Session
Time: 1:15 AM
Location: University Library: 4th Floor Special Events Room

Authors: Anthony Dant.
Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Andreas Bonisoli-Alquati

Abstract: Presenter abstracts are available in the session program provided by MBRS RISE.

Development of an Antioxidant-rich Functional Food Additive from Orange-processing By-products

Biological and Agricultural Sciences
Time: 10:15 AM
Location: University Library: 1823

Authors: Erik Dassoff, Justin Huynh.
Faculty Mentor(s): Olive Li

Abstract: Orange pomace (containing peel, seeds, and pulp) is a by-product of the juice processing industry, accounting for over half the weight of the whole orange. While, traditionally, orange pomace has been used as animal feed, it is a source of high-value polyphenols and dietary fiber. Nevertheless, several of these polyphenols (polymethoxylated flavones, limonoids, and naringin) may contribute to the bitter taste of orange pomace extracts. The current study focuses on utilizing the protein-binding capacity of polyphenols to create complexes which mitigate interactions with bitter taste receptors. Whey protein, micellar casein, and potassium caseinate were blended with the extract during the ultrasonic extraction of orange pomace in concentrations ranging from 1.7% to 5%, freeze dried, and ranked, qualitatively, in terms of bitterness and solubility. Furthermore, both the supernatant and the precipitated protein fraction were tested. The results indicated that, of the proteins tested, the precipitated fraction of potassium caseinate, at a concentration of 5% was sufficient to reduce bitterness while maintaining solubility in water. In addition, a calibration curve was developed for the Folin-Ciolcalteu assay for total phenolic content. The calibration curve is currently being used to develop procedures to assess the affinity of orange polyphenols for various proteins and individual amino acids. Future research will utilize this calibration curve to identify proteins that will achieve higher binding constants and to assess the stability of orange polyphenols and orange polyphenol-protein complexes.

Isolation and genomic Comparison of clostridium strains potentially capable of utilizing the ABE fermentation pathway for production of biofuels

RISE Session
Time: 9:30 AM
Location: University Library: 4th Floor Special Events Room

Authors: Robert Daudu.
Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Wei-Jen Lin

Abstract: Presenter abstracts are available in the session program provided by MBRS RISE.

An Investigation of the Seismic Site Response of the Area Surrounding the New Student Housing at Cal Poly Pomona Using Spectral Ratio Analysis

Physical and Mathematical Sciences
Time: 9:30 AM
Location: University Library: 1814

Authors: Caleb de Silveira.
Faculty Mentor(s): Jascha Polet

Abstract: A seismic investigation of the response parameters of the area near the new student housing units on the Cal Poly Pomona campus was carried out. Double resonance will occur at a site if the underlying soil column produces amplification at a specific frequency that matches up with the resonance of the building itself. Under these conditions, greater motions are more likely to occur during an earthquake and thus a higher likelihood of damage exists. Resonance period and ground motion amplification values at five sites around the area of the new student housing units were estimated in this project. The study involved deploying five seismometers around the construction site. Ambient noise, which represents the small continuous ground vibrations present in the environment, was recorded for several hours and then analyzed using the H/V spectral ratio technique with the Geopsy software to determine the resonance period and amplification values. This method requires no permit and has no environmental impact, so it is especially useful in well developed areas. The Site Effects Assessment using Ambient Excitations (SESAME) project provides guidelines for implementing the technique. Data was collected in areas selected according to SESAME guidelines. The reliability of the curves and the clarity of the peaks for each site were also determined using the SESAME guidelines. The construction site overlies alluvial silt with the San Jose Fault trending east-west at the north end. With the found resonance frequency of ~1 Hz, buildings near 10 stories may experience double resonance during a seismic event.

Deposition of thin salt films on metallic substrates

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: William Omenwu, Dominic D. Dinh, Steven T. Pierce.
Faculty Mentor(s): Vilupanur Ravi

Abstract: The corrosion underneath thin molten salt films is a major problem in some industries. A notable example is the "hot corrosion" of turbine blades in aircraft flying over marine atmospheres or land-based turbines located near the sea. Simulating this type of corrosion in the laboratory is important. Proper experiments can help in evaluating the mechanism of this phenomenon and guide the selection of appropriate materials for these environments. The first step in this research is to develop a technique to apply precise amounts of salt to the surface of metals. In this summer research project, a method called "salt-dripping" was investigated in order to obtain specific amounts of chosen salts onto selected metallic substrate with the goal of finding the most effective method of coating stainless steel 304 and 316 with a thin layer of a salt combination, i.e., sodium chloride (NaCl) and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The tests conducted were done to find an optimum method that could be used to form a thin uniform layer of salt, these methods include spraying the salt solution on the surface of my metallic alloy using a spray bottle or using a pipet to dispense the salt water on the coupon and using a cotton swab to distribute the salt water on the surface of the coupon. The results will be reported and discussed.

Collaboration between Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Search and Rescue Missions

Engineering and Computer Science
Time: 10:30 AM
Location: University Library: 1822

Authors: Thomas Elemy, Bryce Satterfield, Michael Doan, Daniel Molina, Joshua Fofrich.
Faculty Mentor(s): Subodh Bhandari

Abstract: This presentation talks about using multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for autonomous search and rescue mission. Three fixed-wing UAVs are equipped with Pixhawk autopilots for autonomous flight. The autopilots communicate with the onboard computer that processes the data for increased autonomy including autonomous takeoff and landing. An algorithm has been developed to communicate between the autopilot and onboard computer. Pixhawk has commands built-in that allows communication with the flight computer. Each UAV is equipped with different sensors and payloads so that each UAV performs a different task. This task and payload distribution helps use the agility of small UAVs for increased mission efficiency. One of the UAVs is equipped with a camera and image processing system for target recognition. The second UAV is equipped with a payload drop mechanism for dropping rescue package. The developed algorithms were successfully verified in flight tests. Object identification and classification using neural networks for the identification of victims is underway. The images taken by the UAVs are being used to train neural networks for object recognition. An openly available computer vision software is being used for this purpose. The MATLAB-based open source software allows for neural network based computer vision. The presentation will show the results of flight tests as well as the initial results of neural network based computer vision for target recognition.

Non-Traditional Students in Need of an Academic Support Program

Behavioral and Social Sciences
Time: 10:30 AM
Location: University Library: 1814

Authors: Dominique Ruvalcaba, Garland Joseph Dryer, Juan Ramon SevillaJulia Alejandra Lozano, Ludyvina Celeste Hernandez, Evan Anthony Greco.
Faculty Mentor(s): Mary Yu Danico

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify the needs of non-traditional students and the study will serve to spread awareness of an underrepresented and disadvantaged population on campus that is in need of a specific student support program. For the purposes of this study, non-traditional students are those whom were at the age of twenty-two years old or older at the time of transfering into the University as either a returning transfer student or newly admitted transfer student from a community college. These individuals may have faced a myriad of challenges that could have prevented them from furthering their educational goals. The resocialization of non-traditional college students differs from entering freshmen and those who transferred in from a community college in two years or less. The research team hypothesized that the study will serve to gather information and spread awareness of an underrepresented and disadvantaged population on campus that is in need of a specific student support program. The research team will gather data by conducting surveys through use of convenience sampling, random sampling, and snowball sampling undergraduate students currently enrolled at California State Polytechnic University of Pomona, in Pomona, California.

Understanding Disinfection By-Products and Methodologies to Reduce Disinfection By-Products in Water Treatment

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Laura Lopez, Vian Duong.
Faculty Mentor(s): Ali Sharbat

Abstract: The preliminary study of water disinfection began in the mid and late 1800s due to the numerous health hazards due to chemical and microbial water contamination. Although there are many existing methods of water treatment, disinfection by-products (DBPs) have remained as one of many challenges and limitations to safe drinking water. DBPs have been one of the major concerns at the Laguna Vista Elementary School in Oxnard, California. Water samples from the school's water supply revealed an increase in total trihalomethanes (TTHMs), a DBP, which exceeded the regulated maximum contaminant level in 2015, posing health risks to the public. DBP formation results in the chemical reaction between chemical disinfectant agents with the natural organic matter in water. Due to ideal conditions in the formation of THMs, variations of water treatment procedures, such as chemical coagulation, ion exchange, and nanofiltration, in the removal of natural organic matter and bromide will result in decreased DBP formation. Other methodologies to reduce DBPs formation include ozone, adjusting water pH levels, chloramines, and ultraviolet irradiation. Results from these procedures are expected to be lower DBP concentration; however, considering methodology limitations, its effectiveness will vary on the apparatus of the water system, contaminants within the water, and disinfectant. Further research regarding DBP and will classify the proper techniques and technology to reduce TTHM formations.

Collaboration between Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Search and Rescue Missions

Engineering and Computer Science
Time: 10:30 AM
Location: University Library: 1822

Authors: Thomas Elemy, Bryce Satterfield, Michael Doan, Daniel Molina, Joshua Fofrich.
Faculty Mentor(s): Subodh Bhandari

Abstract: This presentation talks about using multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for autonomous search and rescue mission. Three fixed-wing UAVs are equipped with Pixhawk autopilots for autonomous flight. The autopilots communicate with the onboard computer that processes the data for increased autonomy including autonomous takeoff and landing. An algorithm has been developed to communicate between the autopilot and onboard computer. Pixhawk has commands built-in that allows communication with the flight computer. Each UAV is equipped with different sensors and payloads so that each UAV performs a different task. This task and payload distribution helps use the agility of small UAVs for increased mission efficiency. One of the UAVs is equipped with a camera and image processing system for target recognition. The second UAV is equipped with a payload drop mechanism for dropping rescue package. The developed algorithms were successfully verified in flight tests. Object identification and classification using neural networks for the identification of victims is underway. The images taken by the UAVs are being used to train neural networks for object recognition. An openly available computer vision software is being used for this purpose. The MATLAB-based open source software allows for neural network based computer vision. The presentation will show the results of flight tests as well as the initial results of neural network based computer vision for target recognition.


3D Mapping and Integrated Collision Avoidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Engineering and Computer Science
Time: 11:00 AM
Location: University Library: 1822

Authors: Thomas Elemy, Josh McGinnis, Joseph Orosco, Eduardo Cadena-Perales.
Faculty Mentor(s): Subodh Bhandari

Abstract: This presentation discusses utilizing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and LiDAR technologies as a means for creating three-dimensional maps along with allowing for the detection of obstacles so that mid-air collisions may be avoided. This topic of research has many practical applications with disaster response being just one of them. Having a UAV safely navigate and produce an updated map of the affected area will serve as one invaluable piece of information that response teams will have at their disposal. A DJI S1000 Octocopter has been equipped with a Pixhawk, providing autonomous control of the UAV. A VLP-16 LiDAR along with an Xsens GPS aided inertial measurement unit (IMU) supply the data that is processed using an onboard Intel NUC board. The resulting data allows for a three-dimensional map to be created following post-processing using an Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm and the CloudCompare software. The UAV was structurally modified to secure a 3D printed LiDAR mount at a 40˚ inclination which provides optimum results while keeping the center of gravity at an acceptable position. The open-source application, VeloView, was used for gathering LiDAR data for testing purposes. Work is currently underway to increase the accuracy of the created 3D maps with the combined LiDAR and IMU data. In addition, the integration of obstacle avoidance is being researched. More tests will be conducted using LiDAR and IMU data to increase the accuracy of the generated 3D maps. Simulated results captured with the VeloView application will be presented.


Identification of Flight Dynamics Models of a Multicopter using Flight Data

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Vanessa Gonzalez, Thomas Elemy, Edwyn Ramirez.
Faculty Mentor(s): Subodh Bhandari

Abstract: This presentation talks about flight-testing, data collection, data processing, and system identification of a multicopter unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The multicopter was flown extensively for the identification of flight dynamic models and verification. The collected data was first processed using MATLAB, and then converted into a frequency response using CIFER (Comprehensive Identification from FrEquency Response) software. The frequency response was then used for the identification of transfer function and state-space mathematical models of the Y6 multicopter in hovering flight. Different tools within the software were used to analyze the data and for the model identification. Methods of flight data collection, data types required for the identification and verification, identified models, and comparison between the identified model response, and flight data will be presented. Future work will involve automating the frequency sweeps using computer-generated code for optimal flight-testing and model identification. Identified models will then be used for the design of flight controllers using advanced control system design techniques.

Poetry & Art Session
Time: 2:00 PM
Location: University Library: 1808

Authors: Nicole Embrey.

Abstract: Nicole Embrey received her master's in English with a professional certificate in teaching and writing from California State University, Fullerton, and currently works as an adjunct English instructor at various community colleges. Aspiring to be more than just a teacher, she likes to say she is a "storyteller in training." She longs to finally sit down and pen the many stories bouncing around in her head, ranging from a collection of mythical "creature features" to an intensely personal, yet fictional, story about ghosts and clairvoyance. In her spare time, which happens to be very little, she absorbs anything pop culture, often jumping into new fandoms with reckless abandon.

Autonomous Navigation of UAVs in the Indoor Environment for Search and Rescue Missions

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Sania Esa, Tristan Cady, Felipe Borja, Prokkawn Majumdar.
Faculty Mentor(s): Subodh Bhandari

Abstract: This presentation talks about a system for autonomous navigation and target recognition for indoor search and rescue missions using small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The use of lightweight multicopters makes them ideal for maneuvering through tight spaces and locating victims in shorter time. Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques and Collision Avoidance Systems (CAS) are used to navigate the vehicle in the GPS-denied environments. SLAM, CAS, and target recognition software can help rescuers locate victims for disaster relief. Using a LIDAR and camera, it is possible to create a map of an indoor environment and determining and keeping track of the UAV's in the constructed map. The victims can be identified using onboard image processing. An RPLidar is used in conjunction with HectorSLAM algorithm localization and mapping. A Mobius Actioncam is used for the victim identification. The identification software runs on an NVidia Jetson TX1 microcomputer. The Jetson TX1 communicates with the onboard Pixhawk flight controller, while also transmitting data to a ground station using Xbee radio modules. Neural networks are used for the identification of victims as well as for collision avoidance with the wall so that the UAVs navigate the indoor environment safely. Simulation and test results will be presented. Work is underway to test the overall system in flight for realistic search and rescue missions in the indoor environment.

Investigation of capsule formation and structure of Cryptococcus neoformans H99 by mannose analog incorporation and detection by Click-it reaction

RISE Session
Time: 9:00 AM
Location: University Library: 4th Floor Special Events Room

Authors: Eden Faneuff.
Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Jill Adler-Moore

Abstract: Presenter abstracts are available in the session program provided by MBRS RISE.

Object Detection

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Mustapha Farraj, Ping-Yang Hao.
Faculty Mentor(s): Hao Ji

Abstract: Object detection is an easy process for a user to detect an object in images or videos. Object detection is being used every day either by video surveillance, robot navigation or poses estimation. Using machine learning we are advancing a lot in technology to have accurate object detections. The way that deep learning base object is trained is by using a set of images with classes of an object. It is important to know that the object detection will only detect the exact objects classes that were trained to. If needed to detect a new object a new training set is needed for that object. the training process takes a big number of pictures of the same object and an annotated bounding box. The problem nowadays is the bounding box is manually performed by a human which is costly takes a lot of time. The objective of this research is to make this project target a fully automictic framework to build and train all the object needed. In order for that to happen a 3D model will automatically generate a lot of images of the target. Which these images will help the processed objects to be detected easily. This software will achieve satisfactory accuracy with limited user assistance while running in real-time on webcam and mobile device.


Tensroflow object detection

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Ping-Yang Gao, Mustapha Farraj.
Faculty Mentor(s): Hao Ji

Abstract: Object detection is the process of locating and classifying objects, which can do such as video surveillance, robot navigation, etc. Deep learning based object detectors are trained from images with known classes of objects; these detectors can only detect a set of object classes that are known at training time. If we want to detect a new object class, we need to re-train our custom detector. However, this training process requires a large amount of images of the custom objects with annotated bounding boxes and performed manually by humans, which is costly and tedious. This causes substantial barriers to build custom detectors for arbitrary objects. To tackle this problem,our project targets a fully automatic framework of building an object detector for custom objects. In particular, we will leverage 3D model reconstruction to automate the generation of a large amount of annotated image data for target objects. Instead of annotating images and creating the bounding boxes, we only need to name the 3D object's masks once and render 3D objects to generate 2D images and its masks with different backgrounds and situations. Then, masks give the names of objects and their size and location to annotate images, which then help fine-tune deep learning models to yield an object detector with compelling identification accuracy of the custom objects. We evaluate this automatic framework, showing that it achieves satisfactory accuracy with limited user assistance while running in real-time on webcam and mobile devices.

Artificial Intelligence: Principles, Technologies, Breakthroughs, Impacts and Challenges

Engineering and Agriculture
Time: 9:30 AM
Location: University Library: 1822

Authors: Albert Fattal.
Faculty Mentor(s): Zuoyue Wang, Peter Ross

Abstract: The twenty-first century has witnessed a tremendous growth in computing technology. Artificial Intelligence is one of the most important aspects of Information Technology that has received a boost due to this growth. Computers and their accessories have become increasingly cheaper, allowing more people to participate in the evolution of the technology. The interest to develop machines with human-like thinking capabilities began in the mid-twentieth century with the invention of the Turing machine. Since then, engineers, scientists, and software programmers have successfully created programs and algorithms that enable machines to act autonomously. The future presents a vast array of possibilities, mainly spurred by advances in technology and contribution to the field. An often asked question is whether future AI will be capable of developing sentient thoughts. This research explores the principles, supporting technologies, breakthroughs, and impacts of AI technology in modern society.

Design and Modeling of a Nozzle for Compressable Air Flow with Entrained Molten Aluminum Particles

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Raymond Faull.
Faculty Mentor(s): Kevin Anderson, Nicole Wagner

Abstract: The purpose of the project is to determine whether it is possible to design a nozzle that takes compressed air at 60 psi with entrained molten aluminum particles and outlets the flow to atmospheric air at subsonic velocity with an organized distribution of the aluminum particles for industrial engineering applications. In order to accomplish this, analytical compressible flow analysis was performed alongside modeling of the flow in Ansys Fluent computational fluid dynamics software. The computational fluid dynamics analysis was performed using various 2 dimensional model geometries with only the steady state air flow. If it appeared that the air flow would work for the application then a transient model analysis of the flow was performed with the molten aluminum particles being injected using the Discrete Phase Modeling in Fluent. The results of these designs, analyses, and models, as well as, whether the design criteria can be accomplished will be presented.

Collaboration between Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Search and Rescue Missions

Engineering and Computer Science
Time: 10:30 AM
Location: University Library: 1822

Authors: Thomas Elemy, Bryce Satterfield, Michael Doan, Daniel Molina, Joshua Fofrich.
Faculty Mentor(s): Subodh Bhandari

Abstract: This presentation talks about using multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for autonomous search and rescue mission. Three fixed-wing UAVs are equipped with Pixhawk autopilots for autonomous flight. The autopilots communicate with the onboard computer that processes the data for increased autonomy including autonomous takeoff and landing. An algorithm has been developed to communicate between the autopilot and onboard computer. Pixhawk has commands built-in that allows communication with the flight computer. Each UAV is equipped with different sensors and payloads so that each UAV performs a different task. This task and payload distribution helps use the agility of small UAVs for increased mission efficiency. One of the UAVs is equipped with a camera and image processing system for target recognition. The second UAV is equipped with a payload drop mechanism for dropping rescue package. The developed algorithms were successfully verified in flight tests. Object identification and classification using neural networks for the identification of victims is underway. The images taken by the UAVs are being used to train neural networks for object recognition. An openly available computer vision software is being used for this purpose. The MATLAB-based open source software allows for neural network based computer vision. The presentation will show the results of flight tests as well as the initial results of neural network based computer vision for target recognition.

Please Blink Your Password: Converting Morse Code Eye Activity to Text using EEG

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Angela Gadon.
Faculty Mentor(s): Mohammad Husain

Abstract: In Electroencephalograph (EEG) readings, eye blinks are considered an obstacle to brain-oriented analysis. Blinking causes a distinct disturbance in the time series, allowing one to track when eyes open and close. Many programs aim to filter out these blinks from EEG data by recognizing and erasing them. The potential of blink readings, however, can be utilized instead of eliminated: these readings can be used as a safer version of LED eye-blink reading. In this research, EEG is used to convert eye blinks in Morse code into text for possible application in alternative computer interfaces and as a factor of authentication.

Aquaponics

Biological and Agricultural Sciences
Time: 11:00 AM
Location: University Library: 1823

Authors: Vincent Mota, Dakota Galindo, Du Tran.
Faculty Mentor(s): Maryam Shafahi

Abstract: Aquaponic Systems Overview Aquaponics integrates fish and plant farming to create a closed loop, self-cleaning system. Fish waste and uneaten fish food is first broken-down bacteria, which turns toxic ammonia into nitrites and then nitrates. The nutrient rich water is then fed to the roots of plants which further clean the water, allowing it to safely flow back to the fish. This closed loop provides many advantages over conventional produce and fish farming. There is no nutrient runoff or need for chemical fertilizers which helps protect streams and lakes from harmful algae blooms. The plants are grown without soil, so as a result these systems can be utilized anywhere including indoors and places with very poor soil quality. There is also no need for pesticides or herbicides. Conventional recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for fish rearing require high cost nutrient filters and a way to safely dispose of very concentrated organic waste. Because they can be scaled to fit any application, aquaponic systems have the potential to increase availability to fresh produce and meats for areas that would otherwise be unproductive. Combating food insecurity and malnutrition is crucial to having a healthy population, and aquaponic systems are one way to help. In an effort to conserve water in the aquaponics process, gray water from washing harvested produce is reclaimed and used as irrigation. Gray water is classified as water that is soiled by its usage in bathtubs, showers, sinks, and washing machines. Although not sanitary, gray water is also non-toxic and generally disease-free. With simple filtration, without the use of chemicals to remove suspended solids, gray water can be recovered and used to water the plants.

Tensroflow object detection

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Ping-Yang Gao, Mustapha Farraj.
Faculty Mentor(s): Hao Ji

Abstract: Object detection is the process of locating and classifying objects, which can do such as video surveillance, robot navigation, etc. Deep learning based object detectors are trained from images with known classes of objects; these detectors can only detect a set of object classes that are known at training time. If we want to detect a new object class, we need to re-train our custom detector. However, this training process requires a large amount of images of the custom objects with annotated bounding boxes and performed manually by humans, which is costly and tedious. This causes substantial barriers to build custom detectors for arbitrary objects. To tackle this problem,our project targets a fully automatic framework of building an object detector for custom objects. In particular, we will leverage 3D model reconstruction to automate the generation of a large amount of annotated image data for target objects. Instead of annotating images and creating the bounding boxes, we only need to name the 3D object's masks once and render 3D objects to generate 2D images and its masks with different backgrounds and situations. Then, masks give the names of objects and their size and location to annotate images, which then help fine-tune deep learning models to yield an object detector with compelling identification accuracy of the custom objects. We evaluate this automatic framework, showing that it achieves satisfactory accuracy with limited user assistance while running in real-time on webcam and mobile devices.

Selection of DNA Aptamers Targeting Listeria

RISE Session
Time: 9:15 AM
Location: University Library: 4th Floor Special Events Room

Authors: Michael Garrett.
Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Junjun Liu

Abstract: Presenter abstracts are available in the session program provided by MBRS RISE.

Efficacy and Immunological Comparison of QS-21, GPI-0100, and Pam3CAG Adjuvants in gD3pep Liposomes in the BALB/c Mouse Model of Intravaginal HSV-2 Infection

RISE Session
Time: 2:30 PM
Location: University Library: 4th Floor Special Events Room

Authors: Edgar Gonzalez.
Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Jill Adler-Moore

Abstract: Presenter abstracts are available in the session program provided by MBRS RISE.

Identification of Flight Dynamics Models of a Multicopter using Flight Data

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Vanessa Gonzalez, Thomas Elemy, Edwyn Ramirez.
Faculty Mentor(s): Subodh Bhandari

Abstract: This presentation talks about flight-testing, data collection, data processing, and system identification of a multicopter unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The multicopter was flown extensively for the identification of flight dynamic models and verification. The collected data was first processed using MATLAB, and then converted into a frequency response using CIFER (Comprehensive Identification from FrEquency Response) software. The frequency response was then used for the identification of transfer function and state-space mathematical models of the Y6 multicopter in hovering flight. Different tools within the software were used to analyze the data and for the model identification. Methods of flight data collection, data types required for the identification and verification, identified models, and comparison between the identified model response, and flight data will be presented. Future work will involve automating the frequency sweeps using computer-generated code for optimal flight-testing and model identification. Identified models will then be used for the design of flight controllers using advanced control system design techniques.

Non-Traditional Students in Need of an Academic Support Program

Behavioral and Social Sciences
Time: 10:30 AM
Location: University Library: 1814

Authors: Dominique Ruvalcaba, Garland Joseph Dryer, Juan Ramon SevillaJulia Alejandra Lozano, Ludyvina Celeste Hernandez, Evan Anthony Greco.
Faculty Mentor(s): Mary Yu Danico

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify the needs of non-traditional students and the study will serve to spread awareness of an underrepresented and disadvantaged population on campus that is in need of a specific student support program. For the purposes of this study, non-traditional students are those whom were at the age of twenty-two years old or older at the time of transfering into the University as either a returning transfer student or newly admitted transfer student from a community college. These individuals may have faced a myriad of challenges that could have prevented them from furthering their educational goals. The resocialization of non-traditional college students differs from entering freshmen and those who transferred in from a community college in two years or less. The research team hypothesized that the study will serve to gather information and spread awareness of an underrepresented and disadvantaged population on campus that is in need of a specific student support program. The research team will gather data by conducting surveys through use of convenience sampling, random sampling, and snowball sampling undergraduate students currently enrolled at California State Polytechnic University of Pomona, in Pomona, California.

Effects of radiation exposure from the Fukushima accident on sexually-selected red plumage in the Japanese Barn Swallow

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Alexandra Gresham.
Faculty Mentor(s): Andrea Bonisoli-Alquati

Abstract: The Fukushima nuclear disaster that occurred in March of 2011 let off a suite of radioactive contaminants that had potential effects on a wide range of species living in the area, one of which is the Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica gutturalis). The red coloration on the throat plumage in this species, determined by the abundance of the pigment eumelanin, has been previously identified as a sexually selected trait, making it an honest indicator of body condition. To test the link between radioactivity and coloration, digital photos of wild Barn Swallows were collected from sites contaminated by the accident as well as control sites. The redness of the throat plumage was analyzed using image analysis software. In a subsample of 20 photos, we selected areas of 400 and 1600 pixels from the red throat patch in each photo, and tested for differences in variability of red coloration in order to determine the most reliable sampling technique. All of the red measurements were tested against the amount of radiation exposure to determine whether radiation reduced the redness of throat plumage, by reducing eumelanin content in exposed birds. This study may add to the existing evidence that suggests a link between coloration and individual body condition in response to radiation and other contaminants.

Evaluating de novo RERE mutations in vitro and identifying causative variants

RISE Session
Time: 2:00 PM
Location: University Library: 4th Floor Special Events Room

Authors: Jacqueline Gutierrez.
Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Jamie Snyder

Abstract: Presenter abstracts are available in the session program provided by MBRS RISE.

GPU Accelerated Encryption of Big Data Using ElGamal

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Leni Halaapiapi.
Faculty Mentor(s): Tingting Chen

Abstract: In this day and age, information is power. With a lot of our data stored digitally and online, it could be susceptible to malicious cyber attacks. The only way to defend against these attacks is to use better encryption methods. Standard encryption practices, such as the AES encryption algorithm, can use anywhere from 128-bit to 256-bit encryption, which is relatively safe, but as technology improves over time, so to do hacking methods. One way to have more secure encryption is to increase the size, but there are trade-offs. The larger the size of an encryption scheme, the more time it takes. This is where GPU accelerated encryption comes in.

Object Detection

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Mustapha Farraj, Ping-Yang Hao.
Faculty Mentor(s): Hao Ji

Abstract: Object detection is an easy process for a user to detect an object in images or videos. Object detection is being used every day either by video surveillance, robot navigation or poses estimation. Using machine learning we are advancing a lot in technology to have accurate object detections. The way that deep learning base object is trained is by using a set of images with classes of an object. It is important to know that the object detection will only detect the exact objects classes that were trained to. If needed to detect a new object a new training set is needed for that object. the training process takes a big number of pictures of the same object and an annotated bounding box. The problem nowadays is the bounding box is manually performed by a human which is costly takes a lot of time. The objective of this research is to make this project target a fully automictic framework to build and train all the object needed. In order for that to happen a 3D model will automatically generate a lot of images of the target. Which these images will help the processed objects to be detected easily. This software will achieve satisfactory accuracy with limited user assistance while running in real-time on webcam and mobile device.

Non-Traditional Students in Need of an Academic Support Program

Behavioral and Social Sciences
Time: 10:30 AM
Location: University Library: 1814

Authors: Dominique Ruvalcaba, Garland Joseph Dryer, Juan Ramon SevillaJulia Alejandra Lozano, Ludyvina Celeste Hernandez, Evan Anthony Greco.
Faculty Mentor(s): Mary Yu Danico

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify the needs of non-traditional students and the study will serve to spread awareness of an underrepresented and disadvantaged population on campus that is in need of a specific student support program. For the purposes of this study, non-traditional students are those whom were at the age of twenty-two years old or older at the time of transfering into the University as either a returning transfer student or newly admitted transfer student from a community college. These individuals may have faced a myriad of challenges that could have prevented them from furthering their educational goals. The resocialization of non-traditional college students differs from entering freshmen and those who transferred in from a community college in two years or less. The research team hypothesized that the study will serve to gather information and spread awareness of an underrepresented and disadvantaged population on campus that is in need of a specific student support program. The research team will gather data by conducting surveys through use of convenience sampling, random sampling, and snowball sampling undergraduate students currently enrolled at California State Polytechnic University of Pomona, in Pomona, California.

Water Goes Around Comes Around

Engineering and Computer Science
Time: 10:15 AM
Location: University Library: 1822

Authors: Magdeline Hutton.
Faculty Mentor(s): Maryam Shafahi

Abstract: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has estimated that an 8-minute shower results in the use of 20 gallons of water. Currently, in Cape town, South Africa residents are allotted access to 13 gallons of water per day per individual due to the global water crisis. The 4-year long drought that California's recently experienced between 2012-2016 should demonstrate the prospect of potential water scarcity once again. With the apparent increase of insufficient water sources, a need to salvage and treat water is a necessity. The leather industry presents a unique case; one where its product is inherently strong, has multiple applications, and serves as a way of recycling for the meat industry while its process to achieve these benefits is one of the extreme volatile proportion. There stands reason to seek a method to maintain these benefits and minimize the environmental sacrifice. This is a review on the major role of leather industry in water pollution.

Development of an Antioxidant-rich Functional Food Additive from Orange-processing By-products

Biological and Agricultural Sciences
Time: 10:15 AM
Location: University Library: 1823

Authors: Erik Dassoff, Justin Huynh.
Faculty Mentor(s): Olive Li

Abstract: Orange pomace (containing peel, seeds, and pulp) is a by-product of the juice processing industry, accounting for over half the weight of the whole orange. While, traditionally, orange pomace has been used as animal feed, it is a source of high-value polyphenols and dietary fiber. Nevertheless, several of these polyphenols (polymethoxylated flavones, limonoids, and naringin) may contribute to the bitter taste of orange pomace extracts. The current study focuses on utilizing the protein-binding capacity of polyphenols to create complexes which mitigate interactions with bitter taste receptors. Whey protein, micellar casein, and potassium caseinate were blended with the extract during the ultrasonic extraction of orange pomace in concentrations ranging from 1.7% to 5%, freeze dried, and ranked, qualitatively, in terms of bitterness and solubility. Furthermore, both the supernatant and the precipitated protein fraction were tested. The results indicated that, of the proteins tested, the precipitated fraction of potassium caseinate, at a concentration of 5% was sufficient to reduce bitterness while maintaining solubility in water. In addition, a calibration curve was developed for the Folin-Ciolcalteu assay for total phenolic content. The calibration curve is currently being used to develop procedures to assess the affinity of orange polyphenols for various proteins and individual amino acids. Future research will utilize this calibration curve to identify proteins that will achieve higher binding constants and to assess the stability of orange polyphenols and orange polyphenol-protein complexes.

How the Use of ACO Principles and Healthcare Consumerism Influences Patient-Centric Care and Medication Decisions

Behavioral and Social Sciences
Time: 10:45 AM
Location: University Library: 1814

Authors: Jane Y. Kim, Junlin Liang, Erin A. Walton, Nancy Y. Jung.
Faculty Mentor(s): Jae Min Jung

Abstract: About 10% of Americans are diabetic, and each year hundreds of billions of dollars are spent to deal with the disease. Alarmingly, more than one third of Americans are prediabetic and risk being diagnosed with Type II diabetes, a condition that accounts for 95% of diabetes patients. Since Type II diabetes requires long-term care, patient-physician interactions and cost control become important factors. With rising patient consumerism and movement towards efficient healthcare management such as ACOs (Accountable Care Organizations), which are intended to provide effective yet affordable services, it is high time to examine the interrelationships among those. Thus, this research sheds light on the impact of ACO principles on the healthcare provider's patient-centric approach and patient satisfaction. Moreover, this research intends to investigate how healthcare consumerism might influence patients' interactions with physicians, their satisfaction, and attitudes and behaviors involving medication decisions. This research is one of the first studies to investigate the effectiveness of ACO principles in shaping patients' attitudes and behaviors. By establishing the role of healthcare consumerism in shaping patients' attitudes and intentions, this research fills the gap in healthcare services literature and highlights the effects of ACO principles and healthcare consumerism on patient care and satisfaction. Keywords: Consumerism, Accountable Care Organizations, Healthcare, Type II Diabetes, Pharmaceuticals, Patient-centric decision-making, Patient satisfaction.

Nickel Oxide, Cobalt Oxide and Titanium Oxide Loaded Composite Carbon Nano fibers Prepared by Co-electrospinning and Hydrothermal Carbonization

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Saurabh Kansara.
Faculty Mentor(s): Yong Gan

Abstract: The present paper examines the properties of nickel, cobalt, and titanium oxide containing carbon based composite nanofibers. These nanofibers were made using DMF as the solvent, PAN as the precursor and their respective metal salts as the metal oxide sources. The solutions were drawn into nanofibers through a co-electrospinning process followed by heat treatment. These nanofibers were thermally oxidized at elevated temperature of 250oC to stabilize the structure of PAN. Then, even higher temperature heat treatment at 500oC in a furnace with argon gas protection was performed to carbonize the material. After that, the nickel oxide and titanium oxide-containing nanofibers were coated with active carbon in a diluted sugar solution via hydrothermal carbonization. The obtained products were tested in view of light sensitivity and color-ink absorption using an Electrochemical Analyzer and a Vis-UV Spectrometer, respectively.

NEUTRAL RED AND CRESYL VIOLET COUNTERSTAINS IN NITRIGERGIC NADPH-DIAPHORASE STAINED NEURAL AND EPITHELIAL TISSUES

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Zuhayr Khan, Aayushi Mardia, Jordan Wong.
Faculty Mentor(s): Glenn Kageyama

Abstract: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry is used to study nitric oxide (NO) synthesizing nitrigergic cells. When staining neurons, the NADPH-d histochemical technique beautifully stains them entirely, including the dendrites, soma and extensive axon arborizations. Due to not all cells being stained by this technique, it is not possible to know exactly where these neurons and axon arbors or other nitrigergic cells are located relative to other structures. It would be desirable to find a counterstain that provides a clear visualization between the stained nitrigergic cells and the other cell types located in the same area. The NADPH-d histochemical technique involves the formation of a dark blue formazan reaction product from nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBT). Unfortunately, formazan tends to be lost during standard procedures for Nissl counterstaining. By minimizing the exposure of the formazan reaction product to lower grades of ethanol, we have developed two Nissl counterstaining protocols that are suitable to use with the NADPH-d reaction. The first protocol allows the visualization of dark blue NADPH-d stained cells in relation to lighter blue Cresyl Violet (Nissl) stained cells. The second protocol shows more contrast between dark blue stained NADPH-d cells and Neutral Red stained cells. The new staining protocols will enable one to quantitate the percent of NADPH-d stained cells in a given area, and determine how they relate to different neuronal nuclei, tissue layers and blood vessels.

How the Use of ACO Principles and Healthcare Consumerism Influences Patient-Centric Care and Medication Decisions

Behavioral and Social Sciences
Time: 10:45 AM
Location: University Library: 1814

Authors: Jane Y. Kim, Junlin Liang, Erin A. Walton, Nancy Y. Jung.
Faculty Mentor(s): Jae Min Jung

Abstract: About 10% of Americans are diabetic, and each year hundreds of billions of dollars are spent to deal with the disease. Alarmingly, more than one third of Americans are prediabetic and risk being diagnosed with Type II diabetes, a condition that accounts for 95% of diabetes patients. Since Type II diabetes requires long-term care, patient-physician interactions and cost control become important factors. With rising patient consumerism and movement towards efficient healthcare management such as ACOs (Accountable Care Organizations), which are intended to provide effective yet affordable services, it is high time to examine the interrelationships among those. Thus, this research sheds light on the impact of ACO principles on the healthcare provider's patient-centric approach and patient satisfaction. Moreover, this research intends to investigate how healthcare consumerism might influence patients' interactions with physicians, their satisfaction, and attitudes and behaviors involving medication decisions. This research is one of the first studies to investigate the effectiveness of ACO principles in shaping patients' attitudes and behaviors. By establishing the role of healthcare consumerism in shaping patients' attitudes and intentions, this research fills the gap in healthcare services literature and highlights the effects of ACO principles and healthcare consumerism on patient care and satisfaction. Keywords: Consumerism, Accountable Care Organizations, Healthcare, Type II Diabetes, Pharmaceuticals, Patient-centric decision-making, Patient satisfaction.

Preliminary Study of How Powder Size Distribution (PSD) Affects The Packing density On Powder Bed Additive Manufacturing Using High Performance Cloud Computing

Engineering and Agriculture
Time: 9:15 AM
Location: University Library: 1822

Authors: Don Kim.
Faculty Mentor(s): Shokufeh Mirzaei

Abstract: In metal 3D printing (additive manufacturing), there have been research that showed that packing density of virgin metal powder particles directly affects the quality of 3D printed parts. High packing density of metal powder in each layer of laser sintering process would yield lesser chance of porosity, higher material strength, reduced hairline cracks, and smaller chance of materials fractures than with a powder layer of low packing density. The goal of this study is to understand how varying particle size distribution can affect the packing density of metal powder particles, and eventually study how to optimize particle size distribution on a given set of size constraints using computer programming and scale model building. In computer programming, a 2-D programming simulation was built that can connect to commercially available cloud computing servers using computer language CUDA. In scale model building stainless steel balls of varying diameter sizes were used to represent scaled particles and its packing density was measured to validate the 2-D programming.

Constitutive Model of PLG 10-90 for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction,

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Peter Kuetzing.
Faculty Mentor(s): Mehrdad Haghi

Abstract: There are an estimated 100,000 cases of torn Anterior Cruciate Ligaments (ACL) in the United States each year. Although autografts and allografts are approved treatments, they are expensive, labor intensive, cause donor site morbidity, and require a lengthy patient recovery process. Despite decellularization treatments, DNA left in allografts can increase the risk of disease transmission and immunogenic response. Synthetic implants eliminate the harvesting procedure and have great biocompatibility. Understanding the time dependent properties of a synthetic material that closely matches those of native ligaments is imperative for ACL reconstruction innovation. PLG 10-90 (L-lactide -co-glycolide) monofilament is an absorbable biopolymer and strong candidate for ACL reconstruction. The biopolymer sufficiently matches average native ACL tensile strength and percent elongation to fracture. Additionally, the dissolution time of PLG 10-90 is approximately the same as ACL growth time. This inversely proportional relationship offers the potential of scaffold reconstruction procedures. This research will determine a set of evolutionary equations which predicts failure under a variety of conditions. Specimens are stored under an assortment of loads at in-vivo conditions. A specimen is then subjected to one of several tensile tests, including a jump test, to determine the properties at different time points. These tests illustrate the time dependent properties in terms of rate of dissolution and strain rate. This data will show a relationship between the strength of PLG 10-90 and its dissolution which is required to build a constitutive model and determine the viability for ACL reconstruction.

Thermographic Evaluation of Canine Torso Thermal Patterns

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Claire Kwon, Ryan Chang.
Faculty Mentor(s): Cord Brundage

Abstract: Infrared thermography (IRT) is a technological procedure that allows for the detection of real-time changes in surface temperatures. Immediate visualization of animal surface temperatures gives insight to detect physiological responses as the body regulates its temperature. To determine expected thermal patterns in normal, healthy canines (Canis lupus familaris), thermal images were acquired with the use of a FLIR B400 infrared thermal camera. Each canine (n= 40) acclimated to rooms with ambient temperatures that ranged from 21°C to 25°C for 15 minutes. At the end of the acclimation period, canines were positioned at no more than 15°C from the camera to exhibit full lateral sides of the body. Images were taken at a minimum distance of at least 0.4 m. Surface mean temperatures of the region of interest (ROI), the torso, were then analyzed in the horizontal and vertical direction to determine horizontal and vertical thermal patterns of the ROI. An "anchor point" was determined at the lowest point on the curvature of the spine to accommodate for the differences in pixel area ratio attributed by individual characteristics of the canines. Observations from this study reveal an increase in average surface temperatures horizontally across the torso while more variation is exhibited in surface temperatures present in the vertical direction in canines.


Thermographic Image Evaluation of Canine Limbs

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Ryan Chang, Claire Kwon.
Faculty Mentor(s): Cord Brundage

Abstract: Thermographic imaging is a diagnostic imaging technique that captures cutaneous thermal patterns generated by emission of heat from the body. The heat radiation emitted from the tissue of the animals is translated into thermal images with a thermographic imaging camera. The goal of this research project is to determine the normal range of thermographic values for the hind limb region of dogs. Thermographic images were taken in a temperature standardized location with a FLIR B400 thermographic camera of dogs (n= 40) lined up next to a background (typically a wall) and kept still for images to be taken of both the right and left lateral sides of their body. The images were then analyzed using the FLIR Tools application to identify average temperature patterns along the lateral surface of the limbs. Thermographic imaging in the veterinary field is a new area of interest and has the potential to be used further in veterinary medicine and treatment.

Mechanistic Investigation into Molybdenum-Catalyzed Deoxydehydration Reactions

Physical and Mathematical Sciences
Time: 9:15 AM
Location: University Library: 1814

Authors: Jamie Lam, Nathan Wagner.
Faculty Mentor(s): Alex John

Abstract: With the depletion of fossil resources, efforts have been directed toward more sustainable sources of chemicals; fossil resources are non-renewable and have environmental consequences accompanying their use, making it imperative to focus on more sustainable options, such as biomass. Although an ideal alternative due to its derivation as a byproduct of many industrial practices, biomass is highly functionalized with oxygen-containing functional groups, therefore differentiating it from fossil resources. One of the reactions that may be used to convert biomass into the desired hydrocarbon feedstocks is deoxydehydration (DODH). In the past, rhenium (Re) has been used to catalyze the reaction, but its scarcity and cost render it impractical for industrial use. An alternative to rhenium is molybdenum (Mo), which is cheaper, but results in less effective catalysis. Our research group previously investigated a series of molybdenum complexes based on sterically and electronically modulated ligands to establish structure-function relationships. To gain mechanistic insights regarding these catalysts and the DODH reaction, trends in substrate efficiency will be discussed, as well as preliminary findings regarding DODH kinetic studies.

Influence of Acacia koa on ericoid mycorrhizal colonization of Hawaiian native understory plants

RISE Session Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 4th Floor Special Events Room

Authors: Sierra Lauman.
Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Erin Questad

Abstract: Presenter abstracts are available in the session program provided by MBRS RISE.

Collision Avoidance System for Fixed-Wing UAVs using ADS-B Sensors

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Margaux Retherford, Mitchell Caudle, Grace Lewis.
Faculty Mentor(s): Subodh Bhandari

Abstract: The integration of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) into the national airspace system presents itself with a myriad of technical problems. One of the key requirements for this integration is the human equivalent level of safety, which requires the ability to detect and avoid other aircraft/obstacles in their flight path so that the UAVs complete their mission without any loss or damage to other aircraft or property. This presentation talks about the use of ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance- Broadcast) transponders for detection of collision of other similarly equipped aircraft/UAVs. ADS-B transponders can receive and broadcast global position and velocities among other pertinent information in a 100-nautical mile radius. This research used Ping-2020 ADS-B transponders for the collision detection. The collision detection and avoidance is first tested in software-in-the-loop simulation, which also uses the flight controller, Ardupilot, and ADS-B transponders in the loop. MAVproxoy, a UAV ground station software package, is used to communicate between in the autopilot and simulation environment via MAVLink. FlightGear flight simulator is used to visualize the motion of the UAVs. The research uses two fixed-wing aircraft equipped with Pixhawk autopilots, which allow autonomous waypoint navigation. The collision avoidance algorithms use a three-step system of detect, predict, and avoid. The algorithm calculates and sends the waypoints for collision avoidance to the autopilot. Using the kinematic equations, the UAV velocities can be calculated from the information received from GPS sensors, and future positions can be predicted. The collision avoidance algorithm is tested using the incoming information from real-time aircraft.

How the Use of ACO Principles and Healthcare Consumerism Influences Patient-Centric Care and Medication Decisions

Behavioral and Social Sciences
Time: 10:45 AM
Location: University Library: 1814

Authors: Jane Y. Kim, Junlin Liang, Erin A. Walton, Nancy Y. Jung.
Faculty Mentor(s): Jae Min Jung

Abstract: About 10% of Americans are diabetic, and each year hundreds of billions of dollars are spent to deal with the disease. Alarmingly, more than one third of Americans are prediabetic and risk being diagnosed with Type II diabetes, a condition that accounts for 95% of diabetes patients. Since Type II diabetes requires long-term care, patient-physician interactions and cost control become important factors. With rising patient consumerism and movement towards efficient healthcare management such as ACOs (Accountable Care Organizations), which are intended to provide effective yet affordable services, it is high time to examine the interrelationships among those. Thus, this research sheds light on the impact of ACO principles on the healthcare provider's patient-centric approach and patient satisfaction. Moreover, this research intends to investigate how healthcare consumerism might influence patients' interactions with physicians, their satisfaction, and attitudes and behaviors involving medication decisions. This research is one of the first studies to investigate the effectiveness of ACO principles in shaping patients' attitudes and behaviors. By establishing the role of healthcare consumerism in shaping patients' attitudes and intentions, this research fills the gap in healthcare services literature and highlights the effects of ACO principles and healthcare consumerism on patient care and satisfaction. Keywords: Consumerism, Accountable Care Organizations, Healthcare, Type II Diabetes, Pharmaceuticals, Patient-centric decision-making, Patient satisfaction.

Poetry & Art Session
Time: 2:00 PM
Location: University Library: 1808

Authors: Max Lizarraga III.

Abstract: Max Lizarraga III is a highly freelance concept artist and illustrator that focuses their work around the macabre and speculative nature of life with a style that can be described as Neo-Mythological Naturalism. You can find him on IG at a_xolotl.

Transcriptomic analysis of mucus from oil-exposed Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus)

RISE Session
Time: 1:30 AM
Location: University Library: 4th Floor Special Events Room

Authors: Yeraldi Loera.
Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Andreas Bonisoli-Alquati

Abstract: Presenter abstracts are available in the session program provided by MBRS RISE.

Understanding Disinfection By-Products and Methodologies to Reduce Disinfection By-Products in Water Treatment

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Laura Lopez, Vian Duong.
Faculty Mentor(s): Ali Sharbat

Abstract: The preliminary study of water disinfection began in the mid and late 1800s due to the numerous health hazards due to chemical and microbial water contamination. Although there are many existing methods of water treatment, disinfection by-products (DBPs) have remained as one of many challenges and limitations to safe drinking water. DBPs have been one of the major concerns at the Laguna Vista Elementary School in Oxnard, California. Water samples from the school's water supply revealed an increase in total trihalomethanes (TTHMs), a DBP, which exceeded the regulated maximum contaminant level in 2015, posing health risks to the public. DBP formation results in the chemical reaction between chemical disinfectant agents with the natural organic matter in water. Due to ideal conditions in the formation of THMs, variations of water treatment procedures, such as chemical coagulation, ion exchange, and nanofiltration, in the removal of natural organic matter and bromide will result in decreased DBP formation. Other methodologies to reduce DBPs formation include ozone, adjusting water pH levels, chloramines, and ultraviolet irradiation. Results from these procedures are expected to be lower DBP concentration; however, considering methodology limitations, its effectiveness will vary on the apparatus of the water system, contaminants within the water, and disinfectant. Further research regarding DBP and will classify the proper techniques and technology to reduce TTHM formations.

Non-Traditional Students in Need of an Academic Support Program

Behavioral and Social Sciences
Time: 10:30 AM
Location: University Library: 1814

Authors: Dominique Ruvalcaba, Garland Joseph Dryer, Juan Ramon SevillaJulia Alejandra Lozano, Ludyvina Celeste Hernandez, Evan Anthony Greco.
Faculty Mentor(s): Mary Yu Danico

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify the needs of non-traditional students and the study will serve to spread awareness of an underrepresented and disadvantaged population on campus that is in need of a specific student support program. For the purposes of this study, non-traditional students are those whom were at the age of twenty-two years old or older at the time of transfering into the University as either a returning transfer student or newly admitted transfer student from a community college. These individuals may have faced a myriad of challenges that could have prevented them from furthering their educational goals. The resocialization of non-traditional college students differs from entering freshmen and those who transferred in from a community college in two years or less. The research team hypothesized that the study will serve to gather information and spread awareness of an underrepresented and disadvantaged population on campus that is in need of a specific student support program. The research team will gather data by conducting surveys through use of convenience sampling, random sampling, and snowball sampling undergraduate students currently enrolled at California State Polytechnic University of Pomona, in Pomona, California.

Autonomous Navigation of UAVs in the Indoor Environment for Search and Rescue Missions

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Sania Esa, Tristan Cady, Felipe Borja, Prokkawn Majumdar.
Faculty Mentor(s): Subodh Bhandari

Abstract: This presentation talks about a system for autonomous navigation and target recognition for indoor search and rescue missions using small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The use of lightweight multicopters makes them ideal for maneuvering through tight spaces and locating victims in shorter time. Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques and Collision Avoidance Systems (CAS) are used to navigate the vehicle in the GPS-denied environments. SLAM, CAS, and target recognition software can help rescuers locate victims for disaster relief. Using a LIDAR and camera, it is possible to create a map of an indoor environment and determining and keeping track of the UAV's in the constructed map. The victims can be identified using onboard image processing. An RPLidar is used in conjunction with HectorSLAM algorithm localization and mapping. A Mobius Actioncam is used for the victim identification. The identification software runs on an NVidia Jetson TX1 microcomputer. The Jetson TX1 communicates with the onboard Pixhawk flight controller, while also transmitting data to a ground station using Xbee radio modules. Neural networks are used for the identification of victims as well as for collision avoidance with the wall so that the UAVs navigate the indoor environment safely. Simulation and test results will be presented. Work is underway to test the overall system in flight for realistic search and rescue missions in the indoor environment.

Optimization of Hyperbolic Metamaterials Using Gold, Silver, Copper, and Aluminum

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Bo Shrewsbury, Librado Mancilla, Gobind Sohi.
Faculty Mentor(s): Ertan Salik, Ildar Salakhutdinov

Abstract: Hyperbolic Metamaterials (HMMs) allow for the propagation of Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) and Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons (LRSPPs), which interact to form what we call Bulk Plasmon Polaritons (BPPs). These HMM structures are promising in the field of refractive index sensing due to the unnaturally high effective refractive index of some modes propagating within the structures. Our goal is to achieve an effective refractive index of 8.1, which is approximately double the highest refractive index found in nature. These HMMs are made from nanolayers of alternating conducting and dielectric materials. We used silicon dioxide for our dielectric material in each of the following cases. Gold, silver, and copper achieved an effective refractive index of 8.1 or slightly greater with 26 7.5nm-thick layers and aluminum achieved this goal with 26 5.5nm-thick layers.

Influence of mosquito gut microbiota on susceptibility to dengue infection

RISE Session
Time: 3:15 PM
Location: University Library: 4th Floor Special Events Room

Authors: Robert Manuel.
Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Jamie Snyder

Abstract: Presenter abstracts are available in the session program provided by MBRS RISE.

NEUTRAL RED AND CRESYL VIOLET COUNTERSTAINS IN NITRIGERGIC NADPH-DIAPHORASE STAINED NEURAL AND EPITHELIAL TISSUES

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Zuhayr Khan, Aayushi Mardia, Jordan Wong.
Faculty Mentor(s): Glenn Kageyama

Abstract: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry is used to study nitric oxide (NO) synthesizing nitrigergic cells. When staining neurons, the NADPH-d histochemical technique beautifully stains them entirely, including the dendrites, soma and extensive axon arborizations. Due to not all cells being stained by this technique, it is not possible to know exactly where these neurons and axon arbors or other nitrigergic cells are located relative to other structures. It would be desirable to find a counterstain that provides a clear visualization between the stained nitrigergic cells and the other cell types located in the same area. The NADPH-d histochemical technique involves the formation of a dark blue formazan reaction product from nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBT). Unfortunately, formazan tends to be lost during standard procedures for Nissl counterstaining. By minimizing the exposure of the formazan reaction product to lower grades of ethanol, we have developed two Nissl counterstaining protocols that are suitable to use with the NADPH-d reaction. The first protocol allows the visualization of dark blue NADPH-d stained cells in relation to lighter blue Cresyl Violet (Nissl) stained cells. The second protocol shows more contrast between dark blue stained NADPH-d cells and Neutral Red stained cells. The new staining protocols will enable one to quantitate the percent of NADPH-d stained cells in a given area, and determine how they relate to different neuronal nuclei, tissue layers and blood vessels.

Establishing Chicken Egg Incubation Protocol for a New Vaccine Testing Facility

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Jordan Markson.
Faculty Mentor(s): Cord Brundage

Abstract: The Aspergillus species are fungal agents that cause respiratory infections in people and animals. The poultry industry is especially impacted by aspergillus associated airway diseases. A candidate vaccine has been developed by Cal Poly Pomona (CPP) Professor Dr. Jill Adler-Moore in association with Molecular Express Inc. and Western University. In order to further test and optimize this vaccine, we developed a Biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) poultry facility at CPP. The first stage in testing the efficacy of the facility is with the successful incubation of Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) chicken eggs. For this project, we established an initial protocol for that incubation. Forty SPF eggs (day 0) were acquired from a commercial supplier. The eggs were rested at 23 degrees Celsius prior to incubation. Eggs were incubated for 21 days in a cabinet incubator with automated temperature, humidity and tilting control. Incubator conditions were recorded and eggs were turned daily to normalize exposure. Candling to evaluate egg development occurred after the 1st and before the 3rd week of incubation. This process allowed us to determine the hatchability rate of our incubator protocol. Data will be used to compare results from subsequent incubations to optimize conditions for SPF chickens used in this vaccine testing facility.

Exploring SDN and SIEM Integration

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Carlos Marquez.
Faculty Mentor(s): Ron Pike

Abstract: A SIEM (Security Information and Event Management) is a tool used to aggregate, normalize, correlate, and present event log data and network flow traffic from endpoint machines, servers running critical business services, antivirus appliances, network infrastructure components, and more. Software-Defined Networking (SDN) allows the separation of the control plane and the data plane in network devices, giving control of network flow routing to a centralized controller. While a SIEM provides a high level of visibility, it can take more time than is optimal for the user to take appropriate action based on their findings. This project uses enterprise-class switches, IBM QRadar SIEM, and OpenDaylight Nitrogen to see how integration between SDN and SIEM could be used to improve network metrics being measured by the SIEM and allow for user-configured automated network-level responses to detected anomalies in the event logs or network flows. The implementation of such responses could, for example, reduce the need to spend crucial time relaying quarantine orders between appropriate teams for hosts that are known to be infected with malware. This could result in cutting off the spread of the malware upon detection. If automation is not an option, then this same integration could be used to allow one-click options for the same actions in the SIEM interface. The end result is the same - reduced response time to potentially critical threats.

3D Mapping and Integrated Collision Avoidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Engineering and Computer Science
Time: 11:00 AM
Location: University Library: 1822

Authors: Thomas Elemy, Josh McGinnis, Joseph Orosco, Eduardo Cadena-Perales.
Faculty Mentor(s): Subodh Bhandari

Abstract: This presentation discusses utilizing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and LiDAR technologies as a means for creating three-dimensional maps along with allowing for the detection of obstacles so that mid-air collisions may be avoided. This topic of research has many practical applications with disaster response being just one of them. Having a UAV safely navigate and produce an updated map of the affected area will serve as one invaluable piece of information that response teams will have at their disposal. A DJI S1000 Octocopter has been equipped with a Pixhawk, providing autonomous control of the UAV. A VLP-16 LiDAR along with an Xsens GPS aided inertial measurement unit (IMU) supply the data that is processed using an onboard Intel NUC board. The resulting data allows for a three-dimensional map to be created following post-processing using an Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm and the CloudCompare software. The UAV was structurally modified to secure a 3D printed LiDAR mount at a 40˚ inclination which provides optimum results while keeping the center of gravity at an acceptable position. The open-source application, VeloView, was used for gathering LiDAR data for testing purposes. Work is currently underway to increase the accuracy of the created 3D maps with the combined LiDAR and IMU data. In addition, the integration of obstacle avoidance is being researched. More tests will be conducted using LiDAR and IMU data to increase the accuracy of the generated 3D maps. Simulated results captured with the VeloView application will be presented.

Understanding Invasion Success of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar in San Diego: Mapping distribution and exploring factors that influence early settlement success of zoospores

RISE Session
Time: 10:30 AM
Location: University Library: 4th Floor Special Events Room

Authors: Danielle McHaskell.
Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Jayson Smith

Abstract: Presenter abstracts are available in the session program provided by MBRS RISE.

Poetry & Art Session
Time: 2:00 PM
Location: University Library: 1808

Authors: Michelle Mermilliod.

Abstract: Michelle Mermilliod is an English instructor in Redlands, CA. Her work has been published in Pomona Valley Review as well as The Socialist including artwork and original poetry.

An Acellular Approach to Regenerative Medicine: Whole Tendon Decellularization

RISE Session
Time: 2:45 PM
Location: University Library: 4th Floor Special Events Room

Authors: Karapet Mkrtchyan.

Abstract: Presenter abstracts are available in the session program provided by MBRS RISE.

Computer Aided Molecular Design Of Esterase Resistance Hydrophilic Dental Adhesive Monomer

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Yonas Rufael, Ruben Molina.
Faculty Mentor(s): Farhana Abedin

Abstract: It has been shown in the past that salivary esterase enzyme breaks down the methacrylate bond of the dental adhesive monomers. Moreover, other studies have shown that dental adhesive undergoes phase separation into hydrophilic rich phase and hydrophobic rich phase during infiltration through the demineralized dentin. The hydrophilic rich phase has limited quantity of cross-linker, which plays a crucial role in higher dentin/adhesive bond strength and preventing water penetration. Thus, higher cross-linker concentration in the hydrophilic-rich phase will impart extended clinical lifetime to this phase. Moreover, low crosslinking density can cause bacterial penetration leading to recurrent decay and hence failure of the composite restoration. So, the purpose of this research is to design novel dental cross-linker monomers that are resistant to salivary esterase enzyme and are also hydrophilic rich in nature. This will be achieved by Computer Aided Molecular Design (CAMD). Quantitative structure property relationships (QSPRs) were developed for properties, octanol/water partition coefficient and cholesterol esterase inhibition constant using descriptors, connectivity indices. An optimization formulation that minimizes the difference between properties of newly designed molecules and target values was solved via stochastic algorithm, Tabu search. Keywords: CAMD, inhibition constant, Tabu Search, Quantitative structure property relationship

Collaboration between Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Search and Rescue Missions

Engineering and Computer Science
Time: 10:30 AM
Location: University Library: 1822

Authors: Thomas Elemy, Bryce Satterfield, Michael Doan, Daniel Molina, Joshua Fofrich.
Faculty Mentor(s): Subodh Bhandari

Abstract: This presentation talks about using multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for autonomous search and rescue mission. Three fixed-wing UAVs are equipped with Pixhawk autopilots for autonomous flight. The autopilots communicate with the onboard computer that processes the data for increased autonomy including autonomous takeoff and landing. An algorithm has been developed to communicate between the autopilot and onboard computer. Pixhawk has commands built-in that allows communication with the flight computer. Each UAV is equipped with different sensors and payloads so that each UAV performs a different task. This task and payload distribution helps use the agility of small UAVs for increased mission efficiency. One of the UAVs is equipped with a camera and image processing system for target recognition. The second UAV is equipped with a payload drop mechanism for dropping rescue package. The developed algorithms were successfully verified in flight tests. Object identification and classification using neural networks for the identification of victims is underway. The images taken by the UAVs are being used to train neural networks for object recognition. An openly available computer vision software is being used for this purpose. The MATLAB-based open source software allows for neural network based computer vision. The presentation will show the results of flight tests as well as the initial results of neural network based computer vision for target recognition.

A monographic review of the genus, Cyerce Bergh 1871,(Mollusca: Sacoglossa: Hermaidae) using phylogenetic systematics

RISE Session
Time: 10:15 AM
Location: University Library: 4th Floor Special Events Room

Authors: Karina Moreno.
Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Ángel A. Valdés

Abstract: Presenter abstracts are available in the session program provided by MBRS RISE.

Aquaponics

Biological and Agricultural Sciences
Time: 11:00 AM
Location: University Library: 1823

Authors: Vincent Mota, Dakota Galindo, Du Tran.
Faculty Mentor(s): Maryam Shafahi

Abstract: Aquaponic Systems Overview Aquaponics integrates fish and plant farming to create a closed loop, self-cleaning system. Fish waste and uneaten fish food is first broken-down bacteria, which turns toxic ammonia into nitrites and then nitrates. The nutrient rich water is then fed to the roots of plants which further clean the water, allowing it to safely flow back to the fish. This closed loop provides many advantages over conventional produce and fish farming. There is no nutrient runoff or need for chemical fertilizers which helps protect streams and lakes from harmful algae blooms. The plants are grown without soil, so as a result these systems can be utilized anywhere including indoors and places with very poor soil quality. There is also no need for pesticides or herbicides. Conventional recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for fish rearing require high cost nutrient filters and a way to safely dispose of very concentrated organic waste. Because they can be scaled to fit any application, aquaponic systems have the potential to increase availability to fresh produce and meats for areas that would otherwise be unproductive. Combating food insecurity and malnutrition is crucial to having a healthy population, and aquaponic systems are one way to help. In an effort to conserve water in the aquaponics process, gray water from washing harvested produce is reclaimed and used as irrigation. Gray water is classified as water that is soiled by its usage in bathtubs, showers, sinks, and washing machines. Although not sanitary, gray water is also non-toxic and generally disease-free. With simple filtration, without the use of chemicals to remove suspended solids, gray water can be recovered and used to water the plants.

Characterization of Oxidized Metals

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Samantha Villanueva, Isabella Chu, Samuel Navarette.
Faculty Mentor(s): Vilupanur Ravi

Abstract: Metallic materials such as stainless steel can become brittle and weak when corroded. The rate of corrosion increases at high temperatures, and in turn, the effect of corroding or oxidizing the metal can lead to a rapid loss of engineering function and result in equipment failure in industrial conditions. Stainless steel is of particular interest because it is used in many applications and fields. Stainless steel also passivates, meaning that it produces a protective oxide layer that helps prevent further corrosion. Understanding the nature of these oxide films will be helpful in developing ways to improve corrosion protection. This project had the objective of characterizing thin oxide films through optical/visual methods and microscopy. The results will be reported and discussed.

A Comparison of Advanced Oxidation Effectiveness with Hydrogen Peroxide and UV in Solar and Synthetic Systems

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Alejandro Cerano-Lopez, Paola Nieto-ArredondoEllen Chan.
Faculty Mentor(s): Monica Palomo

Abstract: Adverse health and ecosystem concerns have increased from remnant trace organics in municipal wastewater effluent1. Long-term exposure to trace organics can cause cancer, reproductive system damage, and major organ diseases2. Additional treatments such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are used to degrade this trace organic pollutants, however current treatments are not cost and time efficient. Advanced oxidation processes like H2O2/ UV irradiance are investigated on their efficiency to decompose trace organics of wastewater samples. Two non-toxic trace organic substances dissolved in water were treated with high ultraviolet light in order to evaluate the decomposition of the contaminants. Two sets of experiments were conducted with hydrogen peroxide to oxidize the organic contaminants. One treatment involved using a lab-scale solar UV simulator with a 120 watt lamp at 254 nm. The second treatment exposed solution mixtures to UV sunlight. A spectrophotometer with UV-visible range detection was used to determine concentration of contaminants.This study's objective is to verify that AOP via H2O2/UV is a preferred method to remove trace organics. Implementing this method will lead to more resource efficient treatments resulting in higher water quality subsequently improving ecosystem health.

Water Treatment Mock Control System

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Olusegun Obi Bamgbose.
Faculty Mentor(s): Ali Sharbat

Abstract: In California and even worldwide the scarcity of water is of an issue. In order to asses the issue monitoring and treatment is a key factor in moving forward to solve the draught issue. TheWater treatment Mock Control System project is about developing a decentralized water recycling unit, which is powered by PV panels.The control systems is able to to monitor and control the development via a mobile application. The main components of the control system is testing for the conductivity, the flow, the pressure, and the temperature with respect sensors.

COMPUTER-AIDED MOLECULAR DESIGN OF DYE-BASED PHOTOSENSITIZERS FOR PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: "Pi" Raymond Oliver.
Faculty Mentor(s): Farhana Abedin

Abstract: COMPUTER-AIDED MOLECULAR DESIGN OF DYE-BASED PHOTOSENSITIZERS FOR PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY "Pi" Raymond Oliver1, Farhana Abedin2 1"Pi" Raymond Oliver, Electrical Engineering / Computer Science, Cypress College, 9200 Valley View St, Cypress, CA 90630 2Farhana Abedin, Electromechanical Engineering Technology, California State Polytechnic University, 3801 W Temple Ave, Pomona, CA 91768 Abstract Photosensitizers are used in Photodynamic therapy (PDT) to treat various medical ailments including cancer, acne vulgaris, skin and organ diseases, bacterial infections, and sexually transmitted diseases. When photons of necessary and specific wavelengths interact with photosensitizers, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated which damage the cellular structure of the infected tissue - inducing cellular necrosis and lysis or apoptosis. Ideal photosensitizers have a high quantum yield of singlet and triplet oxygen which damages the infected cells. Computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) was employed in order to search for new photosensitizers with such desirable traits. Quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR's) were defined based on 21 different known photosensitizer structures for properties, singlet oxygen quantum yield and molar extinction coefficient. Connectivity indices were used as molecular descriptors to develop QSPRs. Correlations were obtained by linear regression. Chemical moieties were then analyzed, processed, and recombined using combinatorial optimization techniques in order to develop new photosensitizers. The optimization formulation minimizes the difference between the properties of the newly built photosensitizer and the target value and it is solved stochastically using the Tabu Search algorithm. Novel candidate photosensitizers have been proposed here for future research and use in PDT.

Deposition of thin salt films on metallic substrates

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: William Omenwu, Dominic D. Dinh, Steven T. Pierce.
Faculty Mentor(s): Vilupanur Ravi

Abstract: The corrosion underneath thin molten salt films is a major problem in some industries. A notable example is the "hot corrosion" of turbine blades in aircraft flying over marine atmospheres or land-based turbines located near the sea. Simulating this type of corrosion in the laboratory is important. Proper experiments can help in evaluating the mechanism of this phenomenon and guide the selection of appropriate materials for these environments. The first step in this research is to develop a technique to apply precise amounts of salt to the surface of metals. In this summer research project, a method called "salt-dripping" was investigated in order to obtain specific amounts of chosen salts onto selected metallic substrate with the goal of finding the most effective method of coating stainless steel 304 and 316 with a thin layer of a salt combination, i.e., sodium chloride (NaCl) and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The tests conducted were done to find an optimum method that could be used to form a thin uniform layer of salt, these methods include spraying the salt solution on the surface of my metallic alloy using a spray bottle or using a pipet to dispense the salt water on the coupon and using a cotton swab to distribute the salt water on the surface of the coupon. The results will be reported and discussed.

3D Mapping and Integrated Collision Avoidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Engineering and Computer Science
Time: 11:00 AM
Location: University Library: 1822

Authors: Thomas Elemy, Josh McGinnis, Joseph Orosco, Eduardo Cadena-Perales.
Faculty Mentor(s): Subodh Bhandari

Abstract: This presentation discusses utilizing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and LiDAR technologies as a means for creating three-dimensional maps along with allowing for the detection of obstacles so that mid-air collisions may be avoided. This topic of research has many practical applications with disaster response being just one of them. Having a UAV safely navigate and produce an updated map of the affected area will serve as one invaluable piece of information that response teams will have at their disposal. A DJI S1000 Octocopter has been equipped with a Pixhawk, providing autonomous control of the UAV. A VLP-16 LiDAR along with an Xsens GPS aided inertial measurement unit (IMU) supply the data that is processed using an onboard Intel NUC board. The resulting data allows for a three-dimensional map to be created following post-processing using an Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm and the CloudCompare software. The UAV was structurally modified to secure a 3D printed LiDAR mount at a 40˚ inclination which provides optimum results while keeping the center of gravity at an acceptable position. The open-source application, VeloView, was used for gathering LiDAR data for testing purposes. Work is currently underway to increase the accuracy of the created 3D maps with the combined LiDAR and IMU data. In addition, the integration of obstacle avoidance is being researched. More tests will be conducted using LiDAR and IMU data to increase the accuracy of the generated 3D maps. Simulated results captured with the VeloView application will be presented.

Real vs. Simulated: Analyzing Implementation Algorithms for ROS

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Matthew Ortega.
Faculty Mentor(s): Fang Tang

Abstract: GPS navigation is utilized in a wide scope of applications from providing vital information for rescue efforts to the navigation of robots built upon a robot operating system (ROS). The critical aspect of this research is to perform efficient point to point navigation with real-time GPS data. The capabilities of a robot using ROS is limited in that an extended kalman filter is used to provide state-estimation information for the internal GPS navigation to perform efficient path planning. GPS signal can be subject to interference from external sources regardless of where the data is being sent to and thereforeraises possible expectations of error (i.e. noise) in the form of accuracy and precision. It is then imperative to implement an algorithm that would produce newly filtered GPS data that is processed to perform point to point navigation in a robot. The filtered GPS data will then be mapped for comparison between a simulated environment and the University Quad at Cal Poly Pomona. Since the use of a simulated environment can cause little variation in expected results, this data set is expected to be close to the desired outcome of the implementation and filtering algorithm. By analyzing the simulated vs real data sets, the research intends to produce a more efficient method of implementing GPS data for ROS systems.

Moisture Vapor Transport Through Fabrics

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Ivan Osuna.
Faculty Mentor(s): Vilupanur Ravi, John Hooman

Abstract: Abstract Moisture Vapor Transport Through Fabrics Ivan Osuna Citrus College Faculty Mentor: Dr. Vilupanur A. Ravi Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering Cal Poly Pomona Human comfort in regards to clothing systems depends upon the ability of the fabrics and their construction to transmit perspiration away from the body. If the clothing system is inefficient in this regard, the wearer will experience a great deal of discomfort and physiological distress. It is critical, therefore, for the clothing to be "breathable" This project was an attempt to quantify the effect of environmental factors on the creation and transport of moisture/moisture vapor through different fabrics. The physics of the phenomenon will be described. The design and construction of a custom-made apparatus will be reported. The apparatus utilizes a controlled water heater, a humidity/temperature sensor, a fan, and a weighing scale. The results will be reported and discussed.

Poetry & Art Session
Time: 2:00 PM
Location: University Library: 1808

Authors: Grant Palmer.

Abstract: Grant Palmer was published in Pomona Valley Reviews's 11th issue and holds an MA in English Literature from California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. He teaches English composition at Chaffey College in Rancho Cucamonga, California, and is starting the second year of his PhD at the University of California, Riverside, this fall. He writes poetry when not encumbered by the drudgery of academic writing.

Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Containing Composite Nanofibers Made by Co-electrospinning and Hydrothermal Carbonization

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Shivani Patel.
Faculty Mentor(s): Yong Gan

Abstract: Co-electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and synthetic black iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles was performed to prepare polymer composite nanofibers. The polymer composite nanofibers were heat treated at 250oC in the air to oxidize the PAN first. The fibers were then further heat treated at 500oC in argon gas to cause the PAN to be partially converted into carbon. The heat treated fibers contain carbon as the matrix and iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles as the fillers. Photosensitive tests showed that the composite nanofibers possess the photovoltaic property in visible light. In UV light, the composite fibers are not photosensitive. To coat the composite fibers with active carbon, some of the nanofiber samples were placed in a 10% dilution of sugar water in a non-stirred high pressure reactor to allow for hydrothermal carbonization. Several tests were applied to these coated samples. A light emission test was applied by using an electrochemical analyzer and a color-ink absorption test was applied by using a spectrometer.

Deposition of thin salt films on metallic substrates

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: William Omenwu, Dominic D. Dinh, Steven T. Pierce.
Faculty Mentor(s): Vilupanur Ravi

Abstract: The corrosion underneath thin molten salt films is a major problem in some industries. A notable example is the "hot corrosion" of turbine blades in aircraft flying over marine atmospheres or land-based turbines located near the sea. Simulating this type of corrosion in the laboratory is important. Proper experiments can help in evaluating the mechanism of this phenomenon and guide the selection of appropriate materials for these environments. The first step in this research is to develop a technique to apply precise amounts of salt to the surface of metals. In this summer research project, a method called "salt-dripping" was investigated in order to obtain specific amounts of chosen salts onto selected metallic substrate with the goal of finding the most effective method of coating stainless steel 304 and 316 with a thin layer of a salt combination, i.e., sodium chloride (NaCl) and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The tests conducted were done to find an optimum method that could be used to form a thin uniform layer of salt, these methods include spraying the salt solution on the surface of my metallic alloy using a spray bottle or using a pipet to dispense the salt water on the coupon and using a cotton swab to distribute the salt water on the surface of the coupon. The results will be reported and discussed.

Statistical Computation on Encrypted Genomic Data

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Anna Poon.
Faculty Mentor(s): Tingting Chen

Abstract: Since the Human Genome Project, research on genomic data has been on the rise and genomic data is become more readily available. Genomic data contains essential information regarding diseases, sub populations, and individuals, allowing us to pursue ambitious medical research, like personalized medicine. Genomic data is, however, different than other data we collect. It is permanent and unique to each individual. Any risk of privacy can not only expose the individual but the privacy of their relatives as well. Thus, it is significant to protect the privacy of the genomic data in the cloud, as we use the data for the advancement of medicine. Our research allows for us to compute statistical formulas like the Fisher's Exact Test on encrypted genomic data, using homomorphic encryption. We utilized a Boneh-Goh-Nissim cryptosystem with GPU Acceleration for faster encryption and computation. The goal is to encrypt data securely before storing the data into the cloud and allow for meaningful computations on encrypted genomic data.

Identification of Flight Dynamics Models of a Multicopter using Flight Data

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Vanessa Gonzalez, Thomas Elemy, Edwyn Ramirez.
Faculty Mentor(s): Subodh Bhandari

Abstract: This presentation talks about flight-testing, data collection, data processing, and system identification of a multicopter unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The multicopter was flown extensively for the identification of flight dynamic models and verification. The collected data was first processed using MATLAB, and then converted into a frequency response using CIFER (Comprehensive Identification from FrEquency Response) software. The frequency response was then used for the identification of transfer function and state-space mathematical models of the Y6 multicopter in hovering flight. Different tools within the software were used to analyze the data and for the model identification. Methods of flight data collection, data types required for the identification and verification, identified models, and comparison between the identified model response, and flight data will be presented. Future work will involve automating the frequency sweeps using computer-generated code for optimal flight-testing and model identification. Identified models will then be used for the design of flight controllers using advanced control system design techniques.

THERE'S MORE TO YOUR GUT THAN INSTINCTS---INVESTIGATING THE BACTERIAL PROTEIN BAIH

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Laurin Randle, Amanda L. Cao.
Faculty Mentor(s): Kathryn McCulloch

Abstract: In humans, bile acids are recycled from the liver to the intestines and then back to liver in a process known as enterohepatic circulation. This process allows for nutrients to be reabsorbed and helps regulate metabolism and homeostasis. However, some bile acids are passed on to the intestines and specific bacteria within the gut produce harmful products from these bile acids. These harmful products are formed in the process of 7α-dehydroxylation and result in toxic acids that can lead to a variety of disease and even cancer. Thus, the 7α-dehydroxylation pathway is a large topic for study due to its link to discovering more on factors affecting human health regarding the gut. This study focuses on a gene, baiH, within the bile acid inducible operon that encodes enzymes within the 7α-dehydroxylation pathway. The nature of this study involves the recombinant over expression and purification of BaiH from E.coli. Previous research has characterized BaiH as alike to flavoproteins which reduce α/β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. The gene has been known to perform oxidative reduction chemistry on stereo-specific NAD(H)-dependent 7β-hydroxy-3-oxo-Δ4-cholenoic acids. This study is a continuation of a previous experiment involving the characterization of the gene baiH. The methods of purification include ion exchange and size exclusion and each method is analyzed for its efficiency. The purification will allow the isolation of the target protein, determination of the activity of the protein present using an assay, possibly crystallization and overall comparison to previous work done that utilized other purification methods.

Collision Avoidance System for Fixed-Wing UAVs using ADS-B Sensors

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Margaux Retherford, Mitchell Caudle, Grace Lewis.
Faculty Mentor(s): Subodh Bhandari

Abstract: The integration of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) into the national airspace system presents itself with a myriad of technical problems. One of the key requirements for this integration is the human equivalent level of safety, which requires the ability to detect and avoid other aircraft/obstacles in their flight path so that the UAVs complete their mission without any loss or damage to other aircraft or property. This presentation talks about the use of ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance- Broadcast) transponders for detection of collision of other similarly equipped aircraft/UAVs. ADS-B transponders can receive and broadcast global position and velocities among other pertinent information in a 100-nautical mile radius. This research used Ping-2020 ADS-B transponders for the collision detection. The collision detection and avoidance is first tested in software-in-the-loop simulation, which also uses the flight controller, Ardupilot, and ADS-B transponders in the loop. MAVproxoy, a UAV ground station software package, is used to communicate between in the autopilot and simulation environment via MAVLink. FlightGear flight simulator is used to visualize the motion of the UAVs. The research uses two fixed-wing aircraft equipped with Pixhawk autopilots, which allow autonomous waypoint navigation. The collision avoidance algorithms use a three-step system of detect, predict, and avoid. The algorithm calculates and sends the waypoints for collision avoidance to the autopilot. Using the kinematic equations, the UAV velocities can be calculated from the information received from GPS sensors, and future positions can be predicted. The collision avoidance algorithm is tested using the incoming information from real-time aircraft.

Poetry & Art Session
Time: 2:00 PM
Location: University Library: 1808

Authors: Amanda Riggle.

Abstract: Amanda Riggle is the managing editor of Pomona Valley Review's 12th edition, the acting executive editor of The Socialist, and the managing editor of The Poetics Project. This fall Amanda will be starting her PhD program in English at the University of California, Riverside with an emphasis on Marxism, Feminism, and the Early Modern time period in England. She has had multiple poems, short stories, and articles published outside of academia and, in what little free time she has, she engages in community activism.

Poetry & Art Session
Time: 2:00 PM
Location: University Library: 1808

Authors: Ivan Rios.

Abstract: Ivan Rios is the lead proofer, events coordinator, and a poetry section editor for Pomona Valley Review's 12th edition. In addition to being an amazing editor, writer, researcher, and comrade, he is a graduate student in the English department with an emphasis in rhetoric and has worked as a TA for the department. Outside of academia, Ivan and his twin brother play in a local band called ZeitGeist And The Mage.

Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Formation on Traditional and Boron Metal Alloys

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Jeyashree Alagarsamy, Cindy Toscano, Kevin Robles.
Faculty Mentor(s): Steve Alas

Abstract: Higher biocompatibility and corrosion resistant biomaterials are more frequently being test-implanted for a wide range of purposes. However, surgery-related infection and implant microbe-colonization is generally the most common complication. When bacteria adhere to and proliferate on the biomaterial surface, the bacteria produce extracellular polymeric substances, primarily polysaccharides, which mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and form a biofilm. Our long-term goal is to extend the life of a prosthetic implant by identifying new metal alloys that are less susceptible to bacterial colonization. Using one of the major biofilm producing bacteria commonly found to colonize surgical implants, Staphylococcus epidermidis, we investigated the biocompatibility of novel metal alloys with regard to their susceptibility to biofilm propagation. The Experimental biometal alloys examined were stainless steel (SS), commercially pure titanium (CPTi), titanium alloy (Ti64), dental grade titanium (Ty) and titanium-boron metal alloys. Biofilm formation was analyzed using crystal violet staining and fluorescent microscopy. Ideal experimental conditions were obtained using flasks or a biofilm reactor. Biofilm reactor experiments were performed with (continuous culture) or without a constant infusion of growth media (batch culture) during biofilm formation. Results indicate that the Ty alloy permits less biofilm formation than traditional metals. Titanium-boron metal alloys, Ti64+0.04% B and Ti64+0.1% B, showed the least amount of biofilm compared to other metal alloys. Thus, we show that, compared to traditional metals such as stainless steel and pure titanium, the Ty, Ti64+0.04% B and Ti64+0.1% B alloys may be better alternatives as a modern prosthetic biometals.

Toward Better Image Classification

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Eitan Rothberg.
Faculty Mentor(s): Hao Ji, Tingting Chen

Abstract: As proficient as image classifiers have become, they still fail to recognize images in the way that we might hope. They can detect airplanes accurately, but the sky plays an important role in that detection. They can detect cars, but are likely to use the road as an indication. We confirm this experimentally through the use of the first localized, imperceptible adversarial attack -- by changing pixels in the background of an image, we are able to fool image classifiers. We further contribute to adversarial research with our new adversarial training technique. By training classifiers on both normal images and images with adversarial backgrounds, we seek to maintain the state-of-the-art benchmarks for classification accuracy while creating more robust models that focus on the object itself.

Computer Aided Molecular Design Of Esterase Resistance Hydrophilic Dental Adhesive Monomer

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Yonas Rufael, Ruben Molina.
Faculty Mentor(s): Farhana Abedin

Abstract: It has been shown in the past that salivary esterase enzyme breaks down the methacrylate bond of the dental adhesive monomers. Moreover, other studies have shown that dental adhesive undergoes phase separation into hydrophilic rich phase and hydrophobic rich phase during infiltration through the demineralized dentin. The hydrophilic rich phase has limited quantity of cross-linker, which plays a crucial role in higher dentin/adhesive bond strength and preventing water penetration. Thus, higher cross-linker concentration in the hydrophilic-rich phase will impart extended clinical lifetime to this phase. Moreover, low crosslinking density can cause bacterial penetration leading to recurrent decay and hence failure of the composite restoration. So, the purpose of this research is to design novel dental cross-linker monomers that are resistant to salivary esterase enzyme and are also hydrophilic rich in nature. This will be achieved by Computer Aided Molecular Design (CAMD). Quantitative structure property relationships (QSPRs) were developed for properties, octanol/water partition coefficient and cholesterol esterase inhibition constant using descriptors, connectivity indices. An optimization formulation that minimizes the difference between properties of newly designed molecules and target values was solved via stochastic algorithm, Tabu search. Keywords: CAMD, inhibition constant, Tabu Search, Quantitative structure property relationship

Non-Traditional Students in Need of an Academic Support Program

Behavioral and Social Sciences
Time: 10:30 AM
Location: University Library: 1814

Authors: Dominique Ruvalcaba, Garland Joseph Dryer, Juan Ramon SevillaJulia Alejandra Lozano, Ludyvina Celeste Hernandez, Evan Anthony Greco.
Faculty Mentor(s): Mary Yu Danico

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify the needs of non-traditional students and the study will serve to spread awareness of an underrepresented and disadvantaged population on campus that is in need of a specific student support program. For the purposes of this study, non-traditional students are those whom were at the age of twenty-two years old or older at the time of transfering into the University as either a returning transfer student or newly admitted transfer student from a community college. These individuals may have faced a myriad of challenges that could have prevented them from furthering their educational goals. The resocialization of non-traditional college students differs from entering freshmen and those who transferred in from a community college in two years or less. The research team hypothesized that the study will serve to gather information and spread awareness of an underrepresented and disadvantaged population on campus that is in need of a specific student support program. The research team will gather data by conducting surveys through use of convenience sampling, random sampling, and snowball sampling undergraduate students currently enrolled at California State Polytechnic University of Pomona, in Pomona, California.

Investigation of the temporal and spatial expression of KNUCKLES as a candidate gene regulating stem cell proliferation in Aquilegia flowers

RISE Session
Time: 10:45 AM
Location: University Library: 4th Floor Special Events Room

Authors: Uriah Sanders.
Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Bharti Sharma

Abstract: Presenter abstracts are available in the session program provided by MBRS RISE.

In vitro and in vivo characterization of Rhizopus oryzae growth

RISE Session
Time: 3:30 PM
Location: University Library: 4th Floor Special Events Room

Authors: Adilene Sandoval.
Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Jill Adler-Moore

Abstract: Presenter abstracts are available in the session program provided by MBRS RISE.

Collaboration between Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Search and Rescue Missions

Engineering and Computer Science
Time: 10:30 AM
Location: University Library: 1822

Authors: Thomas Elemy, Bryce Satterfield, Michael Doan, Daniel Molina, Joshua Fofrich.
Faculty Mentor(s): Subodh Bhandari

Abstract: This presentation talks about using multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for autonomous search and rescue mission. Three fixed-wing UAVs are equipped with Pixhawk autopilots for autonomous flight. The autopilots communicate with the onboard computer that processes the data for increased autonomy including autonomous takeoff and landing. An algorithm has been developed to communicate between the autopilot and onboard computer. Pixhawk has commands built-in that allows communication with the flight computer. Each UAV is equipped with different sensors and payloads so that each UAV performs a different task. This task and payload distribution helps use the agility of small UAVs for increased mission efficiency. One of the UAVs is equipped with a camera and image processing system for target recognition. The second UAV is equipped with a payload drop mechanism for dropping rescue package. The developed algorithms were successfully verified in flight tests. Object identification and classification using neural networks for the identification of victims is underway. The images taken by the UAVs are being used to train neural networks for object recognition. An openly available computer vision software is being used for this purpose. The MATLAB-based open source software allows for neural network based computer vision. The presentation will show the results of flight tests as well as the initial results of neural network based computer vision for target recognition.

Non-Traditional Students in Need of an Academic Support Program

Behavioral and Social Sciences
Time: 10:30 AM
Location: University Library: 1814

Authors: Dominique Ruvalcaba, Garland Joseph Dryer, Juan Ramon SevillaJulia Alejandra Lozano, Ludyvina Celeste Hernandez, Evan Anthony Greco.
Faculty Mentor(s): Mary Yu Danico

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify the needs of non-traditional students and the study will serve to spread awareness of an underrepresented and disadvantaged population on campus that is in need of a specific student support program. For the purposes of this study, non-traditional students are those whom were at the age of twenty-two years old or older at the time of transfering into the University as either a returning transfer student or newly admitted transfer student from a community college. These individuals may have faced a myriad of challenges that could have prevented them from furthering their educational goals. The resocialization of non-traditional college students differs from entering freshmen and those who transferred in from a community college in two years or less. The research team hypothesized that the study will serve to gather information and spread awareness of an underrepresented and disadvantaged population on campus that is in need of a specific student support program. The research team will gather data by conducting surveys through use of convenience sampling, random sampling, and snowball sampling undergraduate students currently enrolled at California State Polytechnic University of Pomona, in Pomona, California.

Intrusion on Blockchain Infrastructure via Multichain Platform

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Yegor Shea.
Faculty Mentor(s): Ronald Pike

Abstract: Massive amounts of data are being stored on blockchain infrastructures. The best known asset that uses blockchain is Bitcoin, a cryptocurrency that is being used across the world. Since the Invention of Bitcoin in 2009, cryptocurrency has become a well known currency that is being used today, but is it as secure as everyone believes it to be? Blockchain, a shared ledger technology, is the platform on which bitcoin runs its transaction. It is believed to be very secure as each block in the chain is specified with a specific hash. These hashes are used to verify the validity of the chain, each block will look at its previous blocks hash before continuing. In essence if one block has been compromised the rest of the chain will know and will not operate. In my research I propose developing multiple attacks that will compromise a blockchain such as a Dos Attack, DDos attack and a Re-Entry attack.

Optimization of Hyperbolic Metamaterials Using Gold, Silver, Copper, and Aluminum

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Bo Shrewsbury, Librado Mancilla, Gobind Sohi.
Faculty Mentor(s): Ertan Salik, Ildar Salakhutdinov

Abstract: Hyperbolic Metamaterials (HMMs) allow for the propagation of Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) and Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons (LRSPPs), which interact to form what we call Bulk Plasmon Polaritons (BPPs). These HMM structures are promising in the field of refractive index sensing due to the unnaturally high effective refractive index of some modes propagating within the structures. Our goal is to achieve an effective refractive index of 8.1, which is approximately double the highest refractive index found in nature. These HMMs are made from nanolayers of alternating conducting and dielectric materials. We used silicon dioxide for our dielectric material in each of the following cases. Gold, silver, and copper achieved an effective refractive index of 8.1 or slightly greater with 26 7.5nm-thick layers and aluminum achieved this goal with 26 5.5nm-thick layers.

Brain area activation entrained by scheduled feeding in mice

RISE Session
Time: 3:45 PM
Location: University Library: 4th Floor Special Events Room

Authors: Michael Sidikipramana.
Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Andrew Steele

Abstract: Presenter abstracts are available in the session program provided by MBRS RISE.

Ibuprofen Transdermal Delivery via Microemulsion

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Alan Sierra.
Faculty Mentor(s): Laila Jallo

Abstract: Oral administration of Ibuprofen presents many challenges. Ibuprofen can cause upset stomach, as a hydrophobic drug it demonstrates poor gastrointestinal absorption due to its low water solubility , and as a result of the first pass response is reduced in concentration by the liver. Topical administration of Ibuprofen as oil-in-water microemulsion increases the bioavailability of the drug and as a result of bypassing the liver all together, increases its safety. In this study, different ratios of Medium-chain triglyceride oil and corn oil were used as solvents to increase the skin permeability of the drug along with Tween 80 surfactant to decrease the surface tension of the microemulsion and keep it in solution. All ratios set in 25% change of oil intervals were stable and the emulsion of 75% MCT, 25% corn oil, and .15g in 8mL DI water produced the smallest droplet sizes at .119 µm.

Optimization of Hyperbolic Metamaterials Using Gold, Silver, Copper, and Aluminum

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Bo Shrewsbury, Librado Mancilla, Gobind Sohi.
Faculty Mentor(s): Ertan Salik, Ildar Salakhutdinov

Abstract: Hyperbolic Metamaterials (HMMs) allow for the propagation of Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) and Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons (LRSPPs), which interact to form what we call Bulk Plasmon Polaritons (BPPs). These HMM structures are promising in the field of refractive index sensing due to the unnaturally high effective refractive index of some modes propagating within the structures. Our goal is to achieve an effective refractive index of 8.1, which is approximately double the highest refractive index found in nature. These HMMs are made from nanolayers of alternating conducting and dielectric materials. We used silicon dioxide for our dielectric material in each of the following cases. Gold, silver, and copper achieved an effective refractive index of 8.1 or slightly greater with 26 7.5nm-thick layers and aluminum achieved this goal with 26 5.5nm-thick layers.

Fats, Oils and Grease Effluent Recycling for Food Production

Biological and Agricultural Sciences
Time: 10:45 AM
Location: University Library: 1823

Authors: joaquin Spolita.
Faculty Mentor(s): Maryam Shafahi

Abstract: Fats oils and grease pose a serious concern for water municipalities and private businesses. Fat, oils and grease (FOG) that are not captured before entering the water pipelines can cause odors, clogs, and excessive maintenance. FOG is difficult to break down due to its low biodegradability. Wastewater treatment plants are not typically designed to handle FOG wastewater effectively. The purpose of our research is to breakdown collected fats oils and grease from the food industry, process them and use them for a hydroponic plant set up to grow vegetables suitable for human consumption. In order to treat the collected raw FOGthe process will be broken down into filtration, sedimentation, neutralization, and oxidation. Each step tuned specifically to enhance microbial breakdown of the FOG. The resulting liquid will be tested for macronutrients, trace minerals, and pH levels, to be used for a hydroponics system. The results from this experiment will evaluate the possibility of utilizing FOG to development a low-cost sustainable food production system.

Synthesis and Characterization of Vanadium Complexes using X-ray Crystallography and Applications for Catalysis

RISE Session
Time: 1:00 AM
Location: University Library: 4th Floor Special Events Room

Authors: Beverly Stretch.
Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Chantal Stieber

Abstract: Presenter abstracts are available in the session program provided by MBRS RISE.

How Queer Hip Hop Artists Cultivate a Space on the Internet

Behavioral and Social Sciences
Time: 11:00 AM
Location: University Library: 1814

Authors: Carissa Tang.
Faculty Mentor(s): Kai Smith, Kai Smith

Abstract: By creating a space on the internet, Queer Hip Hop (QHH) artists can expand their audience and create their own agency in controlling their respective social media. This is highlighted especially in the political climate of the United States today, where mainstream media paints members of the Queer [1] community as well as the Hip Hop community in a negative light. Alternative media such as YouTube, has traditionally been a haven for LGBT+ creators. These media platforms are increasingly filtering and censoring LGBT+ creators, bringing dire consequences on artists relying on social media to promote their work, ultimately their livelihood. This paper analyzes the internet spaces of ten Queer Hip Hop artists by their respective music videos as well as collecting top comments and other auxiliary data from five of their top individual songs published online within the past decade [2]. Emphasis will be on the lyrical content as well as the audio-visual content of the music videos. By doing so, this compilation of primary sources will test the hypothesis that these individual artists are cultivating a political space of their own. [1] The term "Queer" is used as an umbrella term for the LGBT+ community. [2] Individual songs are songs that are performed by the artist and only the artist. Individual songs do not include collaborations.

Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Formation on Traditional and Boron Metal Alloys

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Jeyashree Alagarsamy, Cindy Toscano, Kevin Robles.
Faculty Mentor(s): Steve Alas

Abstract: Higher biocompatibility and corrosion resistant biomaterials are more frequently being test-implanted for a wide range of purposes. However, surgery-related infection and implant microbe-colonization is generally the most common complication. When bacteria adhere to and proliferate on the biomaterial surface, the bacteria produce extracellular polymeric substances, primarily polysaccharides, which mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and form a biofilm. Our long-term goal is to extend the life of a prosthetic implant by identifying new metal alloys that are less susceptible to bacterial colonization. Using one of the major biofilm producing bacteria commonly found to colonize surgical implants, Staphylococcus epidermidis, we investigated the biocompatibility of novel metal alloys with regard to their susceptibility to biofilm propagation. The Experimental biometal alloys examined were stainless steel (SS), commercially pure titanium (CPTi), titanium alloy (Ti64), dental grade titanium (Ty) and titanium-boron metal alloys. Biofilm formation was analyzed using crystal violet staining and fluorescent microscopy. Ideal experimental conditions were obtained using flasks or a biofilm reactor. Biofilm reactor experiments were performed with (continuous culture) or without a constant infusion of growth media (batch culture) during biofilm formation. Results indicate that the Ty alloy permits less biofilm formation than traditional metals. Titanium-boron metal alloys, Ti64+0.04% B and Ti64+0.1% B, showed the least amount of biofilm compared to other metal alloys. Thus, we show that, compared to traditional metals such as stainless steel and pure titanium, the Ty, Ti64+0.04% B and Ti64+0.1% B alloys may be better alternatives as a modern prosthetic biometals.

Aquaponics

Biological and Agricultural Sciences
Time: 11:00 AM
Location: University Library: 1823

Authors: Vincent Mota, Dakota Galindo, Du Tran.
Faculty Mentor(s): Maryam Shafahi

Abstract: Aquaponic Systems Overview Aquaponics integrates fish and plant farming to create a closed loop, self-cleaning system. Fish waste and uneaten fish food is first broken-down bacteria, which turns toxic ammonia into nitrites and then nitrates. The nutrient rich water is then fed to the roots of plants which further clean the water, allowing it to safely flow back to the fish. This closed loop provides many advantages over conventional produce and fish farming. There is no nutrient runoff or need for chemical fertilizers which helps protect streams and lakes from harmful algae blooms. The plants are grown without soil, so as a result these systems can be utilized anywhere including indoors and places with very poor soil quality. There is also no need for pesticides or herbicides. Conventional recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for fish rearing require high cost nutrient filters and a way to safely dispose of very concentrated organic waste. Because they can be scaled to fit any application, aquaponic systems have the potential to increase availability to fresh produce and meats for areas that would otherwise be unproductive. Combating food insecurity and malnutrition is crucial to having a healthy population, and aquaponic systems are one way to help. In an effort to conserve water in the aquaponics process, gray water from washing harvested produce is reclaimed and used as irrigation. Gray water is classified as water that is soiled by its usage in bathtubs, showers, sinks, and washing machines. Although not sanitary, gray water is also non-toxic and generally disease-free. With simple filtration, without the use of chemicals to remove suspended solids, gray water can be recovered and used to water the plants.

DDOS Attacks Against the SDN Control Layer

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Dennis Tran.
Faculty Mentor(s): Ronald Pike, Mohammad Husain

Abstract: Software-defined networking is a relatively new phenomenon that allows networks to be more robust, flexible, and cost-effective. By separating the control plane and the data plane, SDN allows a logically centralized controller to manage an entire networking environment. As an increasing number of firms work to integrate SDN, the need for SDN security increases as well. The distributed denial of service attack (DDOS) is a common and effective form of attack that aims to consume the resources of a certain system in order to prevent legitimate users from accessing it. While DDOS attacks normally target individual servers, the constant need for communication between the control plane and the data plane creates a bottleneck that attackers can leverage in a DDOS attack. Previous works have studied the control plane saturation attack using primarily TCP floods that could then be countered with a proxy that only forwards packets to the controller after a TCP handshake is completed. In this project we investigate alternative protocols such as UDP and ICMP that may be used in the same attack, and we test the effectiveness of some common IPS systems against the attack.

Eye Tracking Data Analysis and Application

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Jessie Uyan, Irvin Cruz.
Faculty Mentor(s): Sampath Jayarathna

Abstract: By using biometrics the eye movement that can be analyzed to determine if a subject has difficulty learning. The recording of eye movement is done by using an eye tracking machine. The eye tracker we are using is the GazePoint GP3 for this research. Subject's eye movements are being recorded as stimuli that simulates a learning experiences are shown to them. The machine then records raw data from the participant such as the timestamps and coordinates of where that subject was looking during the simulation. We process this data through an algorithm, the 2-D Oculomotor Plant Mathematical Model (2DOPMM), in order to separate the raw data into the main eye movement types such as fixations, gaze following, or saccades. Our focus being in fixations and saccades. From this a subset of data, a feature-set can be extracted measuring characteristics such as amount of fixations, duration, and length of both types eye movements. In order to obtain results, a large amount of feature sets will be collected in order to create a baseline of what eye characteristics define a problem with learning. With integration into concepts such as machine learning we may apply these feature-sets to determine if a person may have difficulties in a learning environment. From this we can then bring focus and attention to those with learning disabilities to better improve their educational quality.

Characterization of Oxidized Metals

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Samantha Villanueva, Isabella Chu, Samuel Navarette.
Faculty Mentor(s): Vilupanur Ravi

Abstract: Metallic materials such as stainless steel can become brittle and weak when corroded. The rate of corrosion increases at high temperatures, and in turn, the effect of corroding or oxidizing the metal can lead to a rapid loss of engineering function and result in equipment failure in industrial conditions. Stainless steel is of particular interest because it is used in many applications and fields. Stainless steel also passivates, meaning that it produces a protective oxide layer that helps prevent further corrosion. Understanding the nature of these oxide films will be helpful in developing ways to improve corrosion protection. This project had the objective of characterizing thin oxide films through optical/visual methods and microscopy. The results will be reported and discussed.

Heritability of Equine Hair Whorls

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Tirragen Vixie.
Faculty Mentor(s): Cord Brundage

Abstract: Hair whorls (trichoglyphs) have long been correlated with trends in animals' behavior, temperament, response to stimulus, and preferred laterality. Recent studies in these areas have lent some scientific backing to horseman's legends, but relatively little work has been done on the inheritance of whorls through generations. I will be observing and documenting hair whorls on most of the horses at the WK Kellogg Arabian Horse Center, and requesting whorl information from the owners of contributing stallions. Trends in these data, such as commonalities in whorl direction, size and placement through a genetic lineage, will provide evidence on the hypothesis that these traits can be genetically inherited. Eventually, these data might help us identify the genes associated with particular hair whorl patterns, and thus the associated motor and personality traits.

Mechanistic Investigation into Molybdenum-Catalyzed Deoxydehydration Reactions

Physical and Mathematical Sciences
Time: 9:15 AM
Location: University Library: 1814

Authors: Jamie Lam, Nathan Wagner.
Faculty Mentor(s): Alex John

Abstract: With the depletion of fossil resources, efforts have been directed toward more sustainable sources of chemicals; fossil resources are non-renewable and have environmental consequences accompanying their use, making it imperative to focus on more sustainable options, such as biomass. Although an ideal alternative due to its derivation as a byproduct of many industrial practices, biomass is highly functionalized with oxygen-containing functional groups, therefore differentiating it from fossil resources. One of the reactions that may be used to convert biomass into the desired hydrocarbon feedstocks is deoxydehydration (DODH). In the past, rhenium (Re) has been used to catalyze the reaction, but its scarcity and cost render it impractical for industrial use. An alternative to rhenium is molybdenum (Mo), which is cheaper, but results in less effective catalysis. Our research group previously investigated a series of molybdenum complexes based on sterically and electronically modulated ligands to establish structure-function relationships. To gain mechanistic insights regarding these catalysts and the DODH reaction, trends in substrate efficiency will be discussed, as well as preliminary findings regarding DODH kinetic studies.

Poetry & Art Session
Time: 2:00 PM
Location: University Library: 1808

Authors: Nicholas Walrath.

Abstract: Nicholas Walrath is a landscape photographer based in Southern California. His work engages the hauntology of abandoned places (ghost towns, dormant construction sites, completed landfills, strip malls, vacant lots) to excavate and decode foreclosed pasts and futures. He is also an activist and researcher for the Skid Row-based Stop LAPD Spying Coalition and contributor to the Socialist Party USA’s national publication, The Socialist, writing on issues of war, police power, state violence, and (in)security.

How the Use of ACO Principles and Healthcare Consumerism Influences Patient-Centric Care and Medication Decisions

Behavioral and Social Sciences
Time: 10:45 AM
Location: University Library: 1814

Authors: Jane Y. Kim, Junlin Liang, Erin A. Walton, Nancy Y. Jung.
Faculty Mentor(s): Jae Min Jung

Abstract: About 10% of Americans are diabetic, and each year hundreds of billions of dollars are spent to deal with the disease. Alarmingly, more than one third of Americans are prediabetic and risk being diagnosed with Type II diabetes, a condition that accounts for 95% of diabetes patients. Since Type II diabetes requires long-term care, patient-physician interactions and cost control become important factors. With rising patient consumerism and movement towards efficient healthcare management such as ACOs (Accountable Care Organizations), which are intended to provide effective yet affordable services, it is high time to examine the interrelationships among those. Thus, this research sheds light on the impact of ACO principles on the healthcare provider's patient-centric approach and patient satisfaction. Moreover, this research intends to investigate how healthcare consumerism might influence patients' interactions with physicians, their satisfaction, and attitudes and behaviors involving medication decisions. This research is one of the first studies to investigate the effectiveness of ACO principles in shaping patients' attitudes and behaviors. By establishing the role of healthcare consumerism in shaping patients' attitudes and intentions, this research fills the gap in healthcare services literature and highlights the effects of ACO principles and healthcare consumerism on patient care and satisfaction. Keywords: Consumerism, Accountable Care Organizations, Healthcare, Type II Diabetes, Pharmaceuticals, Patient-centric decision-making, Patient satisfaction.

Influence of Age on the Therapeutic Effects of Photobiomodulation following Canine Dental Prophylaxis

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Andrea Watson.
Faculty Mentor(s): Cord Brundage

Abstract: Photobiomodulation has been shown to reduce pain and expedite wound healing in animals. To determine the influence the canine's age has on the therapeutic effect of photobiomodulation after dental prophylaxis a low energy GaAlInP laser with a continuous 650 nm wavelength and 100 mW power output was used. Owners had the option to enroll their canine (n = 24) in the study if they were receiving an anesthetized dental treatment. During the post-operative recovery, each patient received irradiation (10 J/cm2) as a member of one of three randomly assigned treatment groups. One group (n = 7) received four treatment points of irradiation on the gingiva of the right upper and lower dental arcade, one group (n = 8) received four treatment points of irradiation on the gingiva of the left upper and lower dental arcade, and one group (n = 9) received a mock gingiva treatment without irradiation. Inflammation and erythema along the gingival treatment area of each canine was scored 24 hours after treatment by a blinded veterinary evaluator in person or via photograph. The data from this study indicates a trend of higher evaluation scores with increasing age of the canine patient. The data also illustrates lower evaluation scores for the canine patients who received photobiomodulation therapy following dental prophylaxis.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with Multispectral Technology for Growth Analysis of Lettuce

Engineering and Agriculture
Time: 9:45 AM
Location: University Library: 1822

Authors: Joseph Wolf.
Faculty Mentor(s): Subodh Bhandari

Abstract: The focus of this study is to investigate the viability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-based remote sensing and machine learning techniques in the estimation of crop biomass and plant height in a lettuce crop. The main advantage of UAV-based remote sensing is the immediate availability of high resolution data. Near infrared (NIR) images obtained using remote sensing techniques help determine crop performances and stresses of a large area in a short period of time. This in turn helps to optimize the amount of water, fertilizers, and pesticides using site-specific management of crops. However, for widespread usage of these techniques by the end users, the accuracy of remote sensing data must be validated using proven ground-based methods. Equally important is the reduction in the overall cost associated with these techniques. UAVs equipped with multispectral sensors and digital cameras were flown over lettuce plots at Cal Poly Pomona's Spadra farm. Different rows of lettuce plots were subjected to different levels of water and nitrogen treatments. The soil moisture and nitrogen levels were determined prior to beginning the study. The multispectral images were used in the determination of vegetation indices including a normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) that provide information on the health of the plant. Machine learning classifiers are developed using the Red-Green-Blue (RGB) images. A handheld spectroradiometer, water potential meter, and chlorophyll meter were used for ground-truthing. Correlations between NDVI, chlorophyll content, and water potential were analyzed. The developed machine learning algorithm was able to predict plant health to a great extent. Remote sensing techniques were also demonstrated to provide moderately accurate estimates of crop biomass and plant height. Importantly, the current study demonstrated that a significant proportion of water and nitrogen resources may be conserved in the production of lettuce, a resource-intensive crop. Machine learning techniques, with sufficient validation, have the potential to provide significantly cheaper solutions to plant health assessment, crop monitoring, and production inputs.

NEUTRAL RED AND CRESYL VIOLET COUNTERSTAINS IN NITRIGERGIC NADPH-DIAPHORASE STAINED NEURAL AND EPITHELIAL TISSUES

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Zuhayr Khan, Aayushi Mardia, Jordan Wong.
Faculty Mentor(s): Glenn Kageyama

Abstract: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry is used to study nitric oxide (NO) synthesizing nitrigergic cells. When staining neurons, the NADPH-d histochemical technique beautifully stains them entirely, including the dendrites, soma and extensive axon arborizations. Due to not all cells being stained by this technique, it is not possible to know exactly where these neurons and axon arbors or other nitrigergic cells are located relative to other structures. It would be desirable to find a counterstain that provides a clear visualization between the stained nitrigergic cells and the other cell types located in the same area. The NADPH-d histochemical technique involves the formation of a dark blue formazan reaction product from nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBT). Unfortunately, formazan tends to be lost during standard procedures for Nissl counterstaining. By minimizing the exposure of the formazan reaction product to lower grades of ethanol, we have developed two Nissl counterstaining protocols that are suitable to use with the NADPH-d reaction. The first protocol allows the visualization of dark blue NADPH-d stained cells in relation to lighter blue Cresyl Violet (Nissl) stained cells. The second protocol shows more contrast between dark blue stained NADPH-d cells and Neutral Red stained cells. The new staining protocols will enable one to quantitate the percent of NADPH-d stained cells in a given area, and determine how they relate to different neuronal nuclei, tissue layers and blood vessels.

visual preference research

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: ruifan wu.
Faculty Mentor(s): Hao Ji

Abstract: machine learning is an idea that feeding data to the machine model and it builds it own logic based on the data, and thus is able to generate results that approximate the aimed result. In this visual preference research, the goal is to train a machine model that can recognize people's faces. The model is named ResNet50, which is a Deep Convolutional Network model that is used to perform image classification task. The dataset includes 5500 people's face images that have a score of 1 through 5 of how attractive they are. Through using python, the dataset is preprocessed and the machine model is feed with those images. After 30 epoch of training and 200 times of validation set, the ResNet50 is able to score human face that closely approximates the scores of images were tagged.

The Effects of Surface Modifications on Cohesion and Electrostatic Properties of Fine Pharmaceutical Powders

Poster & Creative Works Session
Time: 12:45 PM
Location: University Library: 3rd Floor Grand Reading Room

Authors: Daniel Yassa.
Faculty Mentor(s): Laila Jallo

Abstract: It is important to understand and advance the flow in order to lower any issues with the production and or transportation of powders. In this research the effects of surface modifications on the properties of cohesion, bulk density, and specific charge will be examined. Also, the better effective modifications to cut the cohesion and promote powder uniformity will be identified. Cohesion is estate the mutual attractions. Pharmaceutical powders, cohesion in the middle of molecules division uniformity and consistency. This can be a cause of buildup of the electrostatic charge and also effects. The two powders of ascorbic acid and ibuprofen electrostatic charge can be measure in the Faraday cup. Also the two haves coated of M5P and R972 with different percentages.

Synthesis of Nickel Nitrosyl Complexes with Bidentate N-heterocyclic Carbene Ligands

Physical and Mathematical Sciences
Time: 9:00 AM
Location: University Library: 1814

Authors: Zijie Zhang.
Faculty Mentor(s): Chantal Stieber

Abstract: As the level of greenhouse gases is continuously increasing, global warming gets great concern from the world. Nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas that mainly produced from fossil fuel combustion and human activities, has a warming potential up to 310 times that of carbon dioxide. It has a significant impact because it can damage the ozone layer, reducing protection from the sun and UV radiation. While soil micro-organisms such as Geobacillus stearothermophilus, can reduce N2O and transform it into N2, the rate is not high enough to counteract N2O generation and the mechanism is unknown. With the aim to understand the enzyme mechanism and develop methods to mitigate N2O, possible oxidation and reduction mechanisms were studied in nickel nitrosyl complexes. Nickel(0) complexes with bidentate N-heterocyclic carbene ligands were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffractometer. They were then oxidized to nickel(I) nitrosyl cations with the addition of NOBF4 and NO2BF4. The presence of a new Ni-NO bond and a BF41- counterion was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. Future directions will include oxidation, reduction and synthesis of N2O and N2 complexes to understand how N2O can be converted to N2.