The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defines Hispanic or Latino as “a person or Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rico, South and Central American, or other Spaniards culture or origin, regardless of race.”
According to the U.S. Census Bureau population estimates as of July 1, 2013, there are roughly 54 million Hispanics living in the United States, representing approximately 17% of the U.S. total population, making people of Hispanic origin the nation’s largest ethnic or race minority.
The U.S. Hispanic population for 2060 is estimated to reach 128.8 million, constituting approximately 31% of the U.S. population to date.
Among Hispanic subgroups, in 2012, Mexicans ranked as the largest at 64%. Following Mexicans were Puerto Rico (9.4%), Salvadorans (3.8%), Cubans (3.7%), Dominicans (3.1%), Guatemalans (2.3%), and the remaining 13.7% were people of other Hispanic or Latino origins.
The leading causes of death for Hispanics/Latinos in 2010:
- Heart disease
- Unintentional injuries
- Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis
- Chronic lower respiratory disease
- Alzheimer’s disease
- Nephritis, Nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis
- Influenza & Pneumonia
CDC Health Disparities & Inequalities Report
The CDC Health Disparities & Inequalities Report - United States, 2013 (CHDIR) is the second consolidated assessment that highlights health disparities and inequalities across a wide range of diseases, behavioral risk factors, environmental exposures, social determinants, and health-care access by sex, race and ethnicity, income, education, disability status and other social characteristics. It provides new data for 19 of the topics published in 2011 and presents 10 new topics. This report is important for encouraging action and facilitating accountability to reduce modifiable disparities by using interventions that are effective and scalable. The report also underscores the need for more consistent data on population characteristics that have often been lacking in health surveys such as disability status and sexual orientation.
Examples of some important health disparities reported in the CHDIR
- The prevalence of obesity among female Mexican American adults during 2007–2010 was larger than the prevalence among female white, non-Hispanic adults during the same years.
- In 2010, largest prevalences of diabetes were among Hispanic and non-Hispanic African American adults compared with prevalences among white, non-Hispanic and Asian adults.
- During 2009-2010, prevalence of periodontitis among Mexican American adults aged 30 years and older was among the largest compared with white, non-Hispanic adults of same the age group.
- In 2010, Hispanic adults continue to have a substantial rate of HIV infection compared with white adults.
- Teenage birth rates among Hispanic females (Mexicans and Puerto Ricans) in 2010 were larger than rates among white, non-Hispanic females.
- In 2010, the birth rate for Hispanic females aged 15-19 years was approximately five times the rate for Asian/Pacific Islanders, twice the rate for non-Hispanic whites, and somewhat higher than the rates for non-Hispanic black and American Indian/Alaska Native adolescents.
- Among Hispanic adults aged 18-64 years a larger percentage was without health insurance in 2010 than white, non-Hispanic adults of the same age group.
- A smaller percentage of Hispanic adults aged 50-75 years reported being up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening in 2010 than their non-Hispanic adult counterparts.
- Smaller percentages of Hispanics (including Mexican Americans looked at separately) and non-Hispanic African Americans adults with high blood pressure in 2010 had control of their blood pressure compared with white, non-Hispanic adults.
- Among Hispanics aged 6 months of age or older a smaller percentage were vaccinated against influenza during the 2010-2011 influenza season than white, non-Hispanic persons of the same age group.
- In 2009, if Hispanic adults had the same hospitalization rate as Asian and Pacific Islander adults they would have had 240,000 fewer hospitalizations and saved $700 million.
- In 2011, a larger percentage of Hispanic adults did not complete high school and had incomes less than the federal poverty level compared with white, non-Hispanic adults. In addition, in 2010, a larger percentage of Hispanic adults aged 18-64 years were unemployed compared with white, non-Hispanic counterparts.
- In 2010, a larger percentage of Hispanic workers were employed in high-risk occupations than white, non-Hispanic workers.
Source: CHDIR 2013 Website