# Fluid Mechanics (ME 3111 & ME 3121)

In this course, students learn how to analyze fluids at rest (fluid statics) and fluids in motion (fluid dynamics). Fluid mechanics topics are distributed between ME 3111 (Fluid Mechanics) and ME 3121 (Intermediate Thermal-Fluids Engineering).

**Concept/Derivation videos**

** 1.1 - Definition of a fluid**

**1.2 - Pressure**

**1.3 - Absolute pressure and gage pressure**

**1.4 - Density**

**1.5 - Viscosity**

**1.6 - Continuum approximation**

**1.7 - Vapor pressure**

**Demonstration videos (links to non-CPP content) **

**Concept: Comparing the viscosity of various liquids**

Description: Liquids with higher viscosities will flow slower than fluids with lower viscosities, assuming the flow conditions of the liquids are the same. The video also presents a molecular picture of viscosity.

** Concept: Dilitant/shear-thickening fluid #1 **

Description: For some non-Newtonian fluids, the viscosity increases with increasing shear stress. In the video, a small kiddie pool is filled with a shear-thickening fluid and people are able to run on its surface without sinking. Notice that the fluid almost behaves like rubber when strong shear stresses are applied, but flows readily when when weak shear stresses are applied.

** Concept: Dilitant/shear-thickening fluid #2 **

Description: A shear-thickening fluid allows a slow-moving ruler to easily penetrate its surface, but can resist violent blows from a sledgehammer.

** Concept: Surface tension **

Description: Although aluminum has a greater density than water, it is possible to float aluminum coins on the surface of a body of water because the surface tension of water provides a sufficiently large upward force. When liquid soap is added to water, the surface tension of the resulting water/soap mixture is lowered and it is now insufficient to prevent the aluminum coins from sinking. Materials that lower surface tension are called "surfactants."

**Concept/Derivation videos**

** 2.1 - Pascal's Law**

**2.2 - Hydrostatic pressure gradient**

**2.3 - Hydrostatic pressure distribution**

**3.1 - Introduction to manometers**

**3.2 - Barometers**

**3.3 - Piezometer tube manometers**

**3.4 - U-tube manometers**

**3.5 - Inclined tube manometers**

**4.1 - Hydrostatic force on a plane surface**

**4.2 - Center of pressure on a plane surface**

**4.3 - Hydrostatic force on a curved surface**

**5 - Archimedes' principle & buoyancy**

**Demonstration videos (links to non-CPP content)**

** Concept: Existence of atmospheric pressure #1 **

Description: A 55 gallon drum has a saturated liquid-vapor mixture. During heating, the contents are kept near atmospheric pressure since the cap is off. After the heating is stopped, the contents are sealed near atmospheric pressure. As the drum is cooled, some of the vapor condenses to liquid which lowers the internal pressure until the drum is crushed by atmospheric pressure.

** Concept: Existence of atmospheric pressure #2 **

Description: Similar to the last video, an aluminum can initially has a saturated liquid-vapor mixture. As the can is cooled, some of the vapor condenses to liquid which lowers the internal pressure until it is crushed by atmospheric pressure.

** Concept: Existence of atmospheric pressure #3 **

Description: A large storage tanker was not vented properly and the pressure inside the tanker became too low. Atmospheric pressure is sufficient to crush the large tanker.

** Concept: Buoyant force of a liquid **

Description: The density of liquid mercury is so high that it exerts a buoyant force large enough for iron cannonballs to float in it.

** Concept: Buoyant force of a gas **

Description: The density of gaseous sulfur hexaflouride is so high that it exerts a buoyant force large enough for air-filled balloons to float in it. Also notice that the gas does not rapidly dissapate into the atmosphere due to its relatively high density.

** Concept: Rigid body rotation **Description: A tank containing water rotates at a certain angular velocity. The water's momentum attempts to carry it away toward the walls, but is kept in check by the pressure of the fluid above it. After the initial sloshing dies down, the water and tank rotate at the same rate and appear as a rigid body, with the free surface forming a paraboloid. The pressure is atmospheric over the entire free surface and the lines of constant pressure (isobars) are parabolic as well.

**Concept/Derivation videos**

** 6.1 - Systems & Control Volumes **

6.2 - Reynolds transport theorem

**7.1 - Conservation of mass for a control volume **

7.2 - Conservation of linear momentum for a control volume

7.2.1 - Analyzing pressure forces on a control volume**7.3 - Conservation of energy for a control volume **

**7.3.1 - Energy grade line (EGL) & Hydraulic grade line (HGL)**

**7.3.2 - The Bernoulli equation**

**7.3.3 - Definition of pump efficiency & turbine efficiency**

**Concept/Derivation videos**

** 8.1 - General Characteristics of laminar and turbulent flows in pipes**

**8.2 - Developing and fully-developed flow in pipes**

**8.3 - Pressure drop and head loss in pipe flow**

**8.4 - Velocity profile of fully-developed laminar flow in pipes**

**8.5 - Velocity profile for fully-developed turbulent flow in pipes**

8.6.1 - Major losses in circular pipe systems

8.6.1 - Major losses in circular pipe systems

**8.6.2 - The Moody chart**

**8.6.3 - Major losses in non-circular ducts**

**8.7 - Minor losses in pipe systems**

**9.1 - Categories of pipe flow9.1.1 - Example of type 1 pipe flow problem9.2 - Introduction to pipe networks (pipes in series, parallel, branching)9.2.1 - Example of flow through parallel pipes **

**Demonstration videos (links to non-CPP content)**

**Concept: Transition from laminar to turbulent flow**

Description: At lower flow rates, laminar flow is observed as the dye streamline remains unchanged as it travels down the pipe. At higher flow rates, turbulent outburst are observed, followed by turbulent flow.

**Concept/Derivation videos**

** 10.1 - Lagrangian vs. Eulerian descriptions of flow **

10.2 - The material derivative

10.3 - Streamlines, streaklines, and pathlines

10.4 - Kinematics of fluid elements (translation and linear deformation)

10.5 - Kinematics of fluid elements (shear strain, rotation, and vorticity

**11.1 - The continuity equation11.2.1 - Navier-Stokes Equations (Part 1 of 2) - General form11.2.2 - Navier-Stokes Equations (Part 2 of 2) - Newtonian fluids in incompressible, isothermal flows**

Note: Dr. Biddle's ME 311 (Fluid Mechanics I) and ME 312 (Fluid Mechanics II) lectures were recorded in the quarter system. These topics are now distributed between ME 3111 (Fluid Mechanics) and ME 3121 (Intermediate Thermal-Fluids Engineering). Lectures 1-18 were recorded for ME 311 in Fall 2014 and lectures 19-34 were recorded for ME 312 in Winter 2018.

In the semester system, lectures 1-25 are covered in ME 3111, while lectures 26-34 are covered in ME 3121.

**ME311 - Fluid Mechanics I**

**Syllabus for ME 311, Winter 2015 (similar to Fall 2014)**

**Lecture 1 - Fundamental Concepts, Fluid Properties**

Lecture 2 - Pascal’s Law, Hydrostatic Pressure Variations, Manometry

Lecture 3 - Forces on Submerged Surfaces (Part I)

Lecture 4 - Forces on Submerged Surfaces (Part II)

Lecture 5 - Buoyancy & the Bernoulli Equation

Lecture 6 - Bernoulli Equation Examples

Lecture 7 - Fluid Statics Examples

Lecture 8 - Fluid Kinematics

Lecture 9 - Reynolds Transport Theorem, Conservation of Mass, Kinematics

Lecture 10 - Continuity Equation, Bernoulli Equation, & Kinematics Examples

Lecture 11 - Linear Momentum Equation and Bernoulli Equation Examples

Lecture 12 - Linear Momentum Equation Examples

Lecture 13 - Energy Equation and Kinematics Examples

Lecture 14 - Energy Equation Examples, Differential Continuity Equation

Lecture 15 - Navier-Stokes Equations, Conservation of Energy Examples

Lecture 16 - Viscous Flow in Pipes, Laminar Pipe Flow Characteristics

Lecture 17 - Laminar & Turbulent Pipe Flow, The Moody Diagram

Lecture 18 - Minor Losses in Pipe Flow

** ME312 - Fluid Mechanics II **

** Syllabus for ME 312, Winter 2018 **

**Lecture 19 - Pipes in series**

Lecture 20 - Parallel and Branching Pipes

Lecture 21 - Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

Lecture 22 - Series and Parallel Pumps

Lecture 23 - Dimensional Analysis**Lecture 24 - Similitude**

**Lecture 25 - Dimensionless Pump Performance**

Lecture 26 - Introduction to Compressible Flow

Lecture 26 - Introduction to Compressible Flow

Lecture 27 - Compressible Isentropic Flow

Lecture 27 - Compressible Isentropic Flow

Lecture 28 - Converging Nozzles

Lecture 28 - Converging Nozzles

Lecture 29 - Shock Waves

Lecture 29 - Shock Waves

Lecture 30 - Converging-Diverging Nozzles

Lecture 30 - Converging-Diverging Nozzles

Lecture 31 - Laminar Boundary Layer on a Flat Plate

Lecture 31 - Laminar Boundary Layer on a Flat Plate

Lecture 32 - Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Flat Plate

Lecture 32 - Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Flat Plate

Lecture 33 - Drag Forces on Blunt Bodies

Lecture 33 - Drag Forces on Blunt Bodies

Lecture 34 - Examples of Blunt Body Drag

Lecture 34 - Examples of Blunt Body Drag