Ángel A. Valdés

Ángel A. Valdés

Professor, Biological Sciences, College of Science



  • Moreno, K., Rico, D.M., Middlebrooks, M., Medrano, S., Valdés, A., & Krug, P.J. 2023. A cryptic radiation of Caribbean sea slugs revealed by integrative analysis: Cyerce ‘antillensis’ (Sacoglossa: Caliphyllidae) is six distinct species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society  zlad111, https://doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zlad111
  • Innabi, J., Stout, C.C., & Valdés, A. 2023. Seven new “cryptic” species of Discodorididae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) from New Caledonia. ZooKeys 1152: 45–95. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1152.98258 
  • Turani, M., Valdés, A., & Malaquias, M.A.E. 2023. Molecular phylogeny of the marine snail genus Haminoea Turton & Kingston, 1830 (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Cephalaspidea): A framework to study marine diversity and speciation. Zoologica Scripta http://doi.org/10.1111/zsc.12627
  • Ekimova, I., Nikitenko, E., Stanovova, M., Schepetov, D., Antokhina, T., Malaquias, M.A.E., Valdés, A. 2023. Unity in diversity: morphological and genetic variability, integrative systematics and phylogeography of wide-spread nudibranch mollusc Onchidoris muricata. Systematics and Diversity 21: 2246472 https://doi.org/10.1080/14772000.2023.2246472
  • Hendrickx, M.E. & Valdés, A. 2023. Notes on deep-water heterobranch sea slugs from the northern Gulf of California, Mexico. Geomare Zoologica 5: 67–73.
  • Urgorri, V., Regaliza, G.G., Valdés, A., Señaris, M.P., Díaz-Agras, G. 2023. Redescription of Algarvia alba García-Gómez & Cervera, 1989 (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Aeolidioidea) from the Ría de Ferrol (Galicia, NW Iberian Peninsula). Nova Acta Científica Compostelana 30 https://doi.org/10.15304/nacc.id9218 
  • Córdoba González, D., Enguídanos, A., Valdés, A., Pontes, M., Ballesteros, M. 2023. Where do I come from? Phylogenetic analysis of Bursatella leachii Blainville, 1817 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) from the Catalonian coast (NE Spain). Cahiers de Biologie Marine 64: 325-336 http://doi.org/10.21411/CBM.A.72CAEE19


  • Córdoba González, D., Enguidanos, A., Valdés, A. & Ballesteros, M. 2022. Changing feeding habits and ontogenetic dimorphism in juveniles and adults Aplysia punctata (Cuvier, 1803) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterobranchia) in the Mediterranean Sea. Mediterranean Marine Science 23: 827-849 http://doi.org/10.12681/mms.29735
  • García-Méndez, K., Padula, V. & Valdés, A. 2022. Integrative systematics of the genus Dondice Marcus, 1958 (Gastropoda, Nudibranchia, Myrrhinidae) in the Western Atlantic. Marine Biodiversisty 52: 42 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-022-01273-5
  • Valdés, A., Stout, C., & Kim, M. 2022. New species of Aldisa Bergh, 1878 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia: Cadlinidae) from New Caledonia (western Pacific) and Reunion (Indian Ocean). The Nautilus 136: 21–28.
  • Galià-Camps, C., Cervera, J.L., Valdés, A., & Ballesteros, M. 2022. Attack on crypsis: Molecular and morphological study of Dendrodoris Ehrenberg, 1831 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) from the Mediterranean Sea and Northern Atlantic Ocean reinstates Dendrodoris temarana Pruvot-Fol, 1953. Zootaxa 5133: 383–406 doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.5133.3.4
  • Krug, P.J., Caplins, S.A., Algoso, K., Thomas, K., Valdés, A., Wade, R., Wong, N.L.W.S., Eernisse, D.J. & Kocot, K.M. 2022. Phylogenomic resolution of the root of Panpulmonata, a hyperdiverse radiation of gastropods: new insight into the evolution of air breathing. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 289: 2021185520211855 doi: https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2021.1855
  • Ekimova, I., Valdés, A., Malaquias, M. A. E., Rauch, C., Chichvarkhin, A., Mikhlina, A. & Schepetov, D. 2022. High-level taxonomic splitting in allopatric taxa causes confusion downstream: A revision of the nudibranch family Сoryphellidae. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society zlab109 doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zlab109 


  • Ekimova, I., Valdés, A., Stanovova, M., Mikhlina, A., Antokhina, T., Neretina, T., Chichvarkhina, O., & Schepetov, D. 2021. Connected across the ocean: taxonomy and biogeography of deep-water Nudibranchia from the Northwest Pacific reveal trans-Pacific links and two undescribed species. Organisms Diversity & Evolution https://doi.org/10.1007/s13127-021-00526-8
  • Feliciano, K., Malaquias, M.A.E., Stout, C., Brenzinger, B., Gosliner, T. M., & Valdés, A. 2021. Molecular and morphological analyses reveal pseudocryptic diversity in Micromelo undatus (Bruguière, 1792) (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Aplustridae). Systematics and Biodiversity doi: 10.1080/14772000.2021.1939458 


  • Bazzicalupo, E., Crocetta, F., Gosliner, T.M., Berteaux-Lecellier, V., Camacho-García, Y., Chandran, S. & Valdés, A. 2020. Molecular and morphological systematics of Bursatella leachii de Blainville, 1817 and Stylocheilus striatus Quoy and Gaimard, 1832 reveals cryptic diversity in pantropically distributed taxa (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterobranchia). Invertebrate Systematics 34: 535–568 https://doi.org/10.1071/IS19056 
  • Ghanimi, H., Goddard, J.H.R., Chichvarkhin, A., Gosliner, T.M., Jung, D.-W. & Valdés, A. 2020. An integrative approach to the systematics of the Berthella californica species complex (Heterobranchia: Pleurobranchidae). Journal of Molluscan Studiesdoi:10.1093/mollus/eyaa001
  • Ghanimi, H., Schrödl, M., Goddard, J.H.R., Ballesteros, M., Gosliner, T.M., Buske, Y., Valdés, A. 2020. Stargazing under the sea: Molecular and morphological data reveal a constellation of species in the Berthella stellata (Risso, 1826) species complex (Mollusca, Heterobranchia, Pleurobranchidae). Marine Biodiversity 50: 11 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-019-01027-w


  • Ekimova, I., Valdés, A., Chichvarkhin, A., Antokhina, T., Lindsay, T., Schepetov, D. 2019. Diet-driven ecological radiation and allopatric speciation result in high species diversity in a temperate-cold water marine genus Dendronotus (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 141: 106609 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2019.106609 
  • King, C-J., Ellingson, R.A., Goddard, J.H.R., Johnson, R.F., Valdés, A. 2019. Range expansion or range shift? Population genetics and historic range data analyses of the predatory benthic sea slug Phidiana hiltoni (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia). Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 118: 1–20 https://scholar.oxy.edu/scas/vol118/iss1/1/
  • Valdés, A. 2019. Northeast Pacific benthic shelled sea slugs. Zoosymposia 13: 242–304 http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zoosymposia.13.1.21


  • Valdés, A., Lundsten, L., & Wilson, N.G. 2018. Five new deep-sea species of nudibranchs (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Cladobranchia) from the Northeast Pacific.Zootaxa 4526: 401–433 https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4526.4.1
  • Bazzicalupo, E., Crocetta, F., Estores-Pacheco, K., Golestani, H., Bazairi, H., Giacobbe, S., Jaklin, A., Poursanidis, D., Chandran, S., Cervera Currado, J. L., & Valdés, A. 2018. Population genetics of Bursatella leachii (De Blainville, 1817) and implications for the origin of the Mediterranean population. Helgoland Marine Research 72: 19 doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s10152-018-0521-7
  • Gosliner, T.M., Valdés, A., & Behrens, D.W. 2018. Nudibranch and Sea Slug Identification - Indo-Pacific, Second Edition. New World Publications, Jacksonville, FL, 451 pp.
  • Krug, P.J., Wong, N.L.W.S., Medina, M., Gosliner, T.M., & Valdés, A. 2018. Cryptic speciation yields remarkable mimics: a new genus of sea slugs that masquerade as toxic algae (Caulerpa spp.). Zoologica Scripta https://doi.org/10.1111/zsc.12310
  • Medrano, S., Krug, P.J., Gosliner, T.M., Kumar, A.B., & Valdés, A. 2018. Systematics of Polybranchia Pease, 1860 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Sacoglossa) based on molecular and morphological data. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society https://doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zly050
  • Krug, P.J., Berriman, J.S., & Valdés, A. 2018. Phylogenetic systematics of the shelled sea slug genus Oxynoe Rafinesque, 1814 (Heterobranchia: Sacoglossa), with integrative descriptions of seven new species. Invertebrate Systematics 32: 950-1003 doi:https://doi.org/10.1071/IS17080
  • Merlo, E.M., Milligan, K.A., Sheets, N.B., Neufeld, C.J., Eastham, T.M., Estores-Pacheco, K.A.L., Steinke, D., Hebert, P,D.N., Valdés, A., & Wyeth, R.C. 2018. Range extension for the region of sympatry between the nudibranchs Hermissenda opalescens and Hermissenda crassicornis in the Northeastern Pacific. FACETS 3: 764-776 doi:10.1139/facets-2017-0060
  • Berriman, J.S., Ellingson, R.A., Awbrey, J.D., Rico, D.M., Valdés, A., Wilson, N.G., Aguilar, A., Herbert, D.G., Hirano, Y.M., Trowbridge, C.D., Krug, P.J. 2018. A biting commentary: Integrating tooth characters with molecular data doubles known species diversity in a lineage of sea slugs that consume “killer algae.” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 126: 356-370 doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2018.02.027


  • Valdés, A., Breslau, E., Padula, V., Schrödl, M., Camacho, Y., Malaquias, M., Alexander, J., Bottomley, M., Vital, X., Hooker, Y. & Gosliner, T.M. 2017. Molecular and morphological systematics of Dolabrifera Gray, 1847 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Aplysiomorpha). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zlx099
  • McCarthy, J.B., Krug, P.K., & Valdés, A. 2017. Integrative systematics of Placida cremoniana (Trinchese, 1892) (Gastropoda, Heterobrachia, Sacoglossa) reveals multiple pseudocryptic species. Marine Biodiversitydoi:10.1007/s12526-017-0812-2
  • Goodheart, J., Bazinet, A.L., Valdés, A., Collins, A.G., & Cummings, M. 2017. Prey preference follows phylogeny: Evolutionary dietary patterns within the marine gastropod group Cladobranchia (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Nudibranchia). BMC Evolutionary Biology 17:221 doi:10.1186/s12862-017-1066-0
  • Hoover, C.A., Padula, V., Schrödl, M., Hooker, Y. & Valdés, A. 2017. Integrative taxonomy of the Felimare californiensis and Felimare ghiselini species complex (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) and description of a new species from Peru. Journal of Molluscan Studies 83: 461-475 doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/mollus/eyx035
  • Valdés, A., Gosliner, T.M. & Warén, A. 2017. A new species of Parvaplustrum Powell, 1951 (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia: Aplustridae) from the northeastern Pacific. The Nautilus 97–100.
  • Uribe, R., Sepúlveda, F., Goddard, J.H.R. & Valdés, A. 2017. Integrative systematics of the genus Limacia O. F. Müller, 1781 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia, Polyceridae) in the Eastern Pacific. Marine Biodiversity doi:10.1007/s12526-017-0676-5
  • Garabedian, K., Malaquias, M.A.E., Crocetta, F., Zenetos, A., Kavadas, S., & Valdés, A. 2017. Haminoea orteai Talavera, Murillo and Templado, 1987 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Cephalaspidea), a widespread species in the Mediterranean and northeastern Atlantic. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 58: 107-113 doi:10.21411/CBM.A.19015AD4
  • Breslau, E., Valdés, A. & Chichvarkhin, A. 2017. A new cryptic species of Melanochlamys (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Cephalaspidea) from the Northwestern Pacific. American Malacological Bulletin 34: 103-108 doi: 10.4003/006.034.0206


  • Ekimova, I., Valdés, A., Schepetov, D., Chichvarkhin, A. 2016. Was Gordon Robilliard right? Integrative systematics suggests that Dendronotus diversicolor Robilliard, 1970 is a valid species. Canadian Journal of Zoology 94: 793-799 doi:10.1139/cjz-2016-0096
  • Lindsay, T., Kelly, J., Chichvarkhin, A., Craig, S., Kajihara, H., Mackie, J & Valdés, A. 2016. Changing spots: pseudocryptic speciation in the North Pacific dorid nudibranch Diaulula sandiegensis (Cooper, 1862) (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia). Journal of Molluscan Studies 82: 564-574 doi:10.1093/mollus/eyw026
  • Chichvarkhin, A.Y., Ekimova, I.A., Chalenko, K.P., Schepetov, D., Chichvarkhina, O.V. & Valdés. A. 2016. Placida babai (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Sacoglossa) from Russian waters of the Sea of Japan. Bulletin of the Russian Far East Malacological Society 20: 44–56.
  • Moustafa, A.Y., Golestani, H. & Valdés, A. 2016. A review of the genus Berthellina (Mollusca: Heterobranchia: Pleurobranchidae) in the Red Sea based on molecular and anatomical data. Marine Biodiversity doi:10.1007/s12526-016-0558-2
  • Krug, P.J., Vendetti, J.E. & Valdés, A. 2016. Molecular and morphological systematics of Elysia Risso (Heterobranchia: Sacoglossa) from the Caribbean region. Zootaxa 4148: 1-137 doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4148.1.1
  • Valdés, A., Cadien, D.B. & Gosliner, T.M. 2016. Philinidae, Laonidae and Philinorbidae (Cephaslaspidea: Philinoidea) from the Northeastern Pacific Ocean and the Beaufort Sea (Arctic Ocean). Zootaxa 4147: 501-537 doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4147.5.1
  • Goodheart, J.A., Ellingson, R.A., Vital, X.G., Galvão Filho, H., McCarthy, J.B., Medrano, S.M., Bhave, V.J., García-Méndez, K., Jiménez, L.M., López, G., Hoover, C.A., Awbrey, J.D., DeJesus, J.M., Gowacki, W., Krug, P.J. & Valdés, A. 2016. Identification guide to the heterobranch sea slugs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Bocas del Toro, Panama. Marine Biodiversity Records 9: 56 doi:10.1186/s41200-016-0048-z
  • Valdés, A., Medrano, S.M. & Bhave, V.J. 2016. A new species of Cuthona (Heterobranchia: Nudibranchia: Tergipedidae) from the Caribbean Sea. The Nautilus 130: 72–78.
  • Araya, J.F. & Valdés, A. 2016. Araya, J.F. & Valdés, A. 2016. Shallow water heterobranch sea slugs (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) from the Región de Atacama, northern Chile. PeerJ 4:e1963 
  • Lindsay, T. & Valdés, A. 2016. The model organism Hermissenda crassicornis (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) is a species complex. PLoS ONE 11: e0154265 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0154265
  • Valdés, A., Murillo, F.J., McCarthy, J.B. & Yedinak, N. 2016. New deep-water records and species of North Atlantic nudibranchs (Mollusca, Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) with the description of a new species. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 97: 303-319 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315416000394


  • Valdés. A. & McLean, J.H. 2015. On two abyssal species of Scaphandridae G. O. Sars, 1878 (Gastropoda, Cephalaspidea) from the eastern Pacific. The Nautilus 129: 118-125.
  • Gosliner, T.M., Valdés, A. & Behrens, D.W. 2015. Nudibranch and Sea Slug Identification - Indo-Pacific. New World Publications, Jacksonville, Florida.
  • Krug, P.J., Vendetti, J.E., Ellingson, R.A., Trowbridge, C.D., Hirano, Y.M., Trathen, D.Y., Rodriguez, A.K., Swennen, C., Wilson, N.G., & Valdés, A. 2015. Species selection favors dispersive life histories in sea slugs but higher per-offspring investment drives shifts to short-lived larvae. Systematic Biology 64: 983-999 doi:10.1093/sysbio/syv046
  • Hulett, R.E., Mahguib, J., Gosliner, T.M. & Valdés, A. 2015. Molecular evaluation of the phylogenetic position of the enigmatic species Trivettea papalotla (Bertsch et al. 2009) (Mollusca, Nudibranchia). Invertebrate Systematics 29: 215-222 doi:10.1071/IS15002
  • Hoover, C. Lindsay, T., Goddard, J.H.R., & Valdés, A. 2015. Seeing double: Pseudocryptic diversity in the Doriopsilla albopunctata-Doriopsilla gemela species complex of the north-eastern Pacific. Zoologica Scripta 44: 612-631 doi:10.1111/zsc.12123
  • Goddard, J.H.R. & Valdés, A. 2015. Reviving a cold case: two northeastern Pacific dendrodorid nudibranchs reassessed (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia). The Nautilus 129: 31-42.
  • Goodheart, J., Camacho-García, Y., Padula, V., Schrödl, M., Cervera, J.L., Gosliner, T.M. & Valdés, A. 2015. Systematics and biogeography of Pleurobranchus Cuvier, 1804, sea slugs (Heterobranchia: Nudipleura: Pleurobranchidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 174: 322-362 doi:10.1111/zoj.12237
  • Mahguib, J. & Valdés, A. 2015. Molecular investigation of the phylogenetic position of the polar nudibranch Doridoxa (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterobranchia). Polar Biology 38: 1369-1377 doi:10.1007/s00300-015-1700-5


  • Behrens, D.W., Ornelas, E. & Valdés, A. 2014. Two new species of Velutinidae Gray, 1840, from the Northern Pacific with a preliminary molecular phylogeny of the family. The Nautilus 128: 114-121.
  • Espinoza, E., DuPont, A. & Valdés, A. 2014. Molecular data reveal an undescribed cryptic species of Costasiella Pruvot-Fol, 1951 (Euthyneura: Sacoglossa) in the Bahamas. American Malacological Bulletin 32: 173-182 doi:10.4003/006.032.0208
  • De Oliveira Saad, L., Magenta Cunha, C., Delevati Colpo. K., Valdés, A. 2014. It’s not what it looks like: Molecular data fails to substantiate morphological differences in two sea hares (Mollusca, Heterobranchia, Aplysiidae) from southern Brazil. Helgoland Marine Research 68: 523-530 doi:10.1007/s10152-014-0408-1
  • Cooke, S., Hanson, D., Hirano, Y., Ornelas-Gatdula, E., Gosliner, T. M., Chernyshev, A. & Valdés, A. 2014. Cryptic diversity of Melanochlamys sea slugs (Gastropoda, Aglajidae) in the North Pacific. Zoologica Scripta 43: 351-369 doi:10.1111/zsc.12063
  • Churchill, C., Valdés, A., & Ó Foighil, D. 2014. Molecular and morphological systematics of neustonic nudibranchs (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Glaucidae, Glaucus) with descriptions of three new cryptic species. Invertebrate Systematics 28: 174–195 doi:10.1071/IS13038
  • Churchill, C., Valdés, A., & Ó Foighil, D. 2014. Afro-Eurasia and the Americas present barriers to gene flow for the cosmopolitan neustonic nudibranch Glaucus atlanticus. Marine Biology 161: 899–910 doi:10.1007/s00227-014-2389-7
  • Carmona, L., Lei, B.R., Pola, M., Gosliner, T.M., Valdés, A. & Cervera, J.L. 2014. Untangling the Spurilla neapolitana (Delle Chiaje, 1841) species complex: A review of the genus Spurilla Bergh, 1864 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia: Aeolidiidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 170: 132–15 doi:10.1111/zoj.12098
  • Camacho-García, Y.E, Ornelas-Gatdula, E. Gosliner, T.M. & Valdés, A. 2014. Phylogeny of the family Aglajidae (Pilsbry, 1895) (Opisthobranchia: Cephalaspidea) inferred from mtDNA and nDNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 71: 113-126 doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.11.010
  • Santander, M. & Valdés, A. 2014. Genetic structure of Polycera alabe and P. atra (Mollusca: Opistobranchia: Nudibranchia) in the Pacific coast of North America. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 112: 176-184


  • Valdés, A., Alexander, J., Crocetta, F., Yokeş, M.B., Giacobbe, S., Poursanidis, D., Zenetos, A., Cervera, J.L., Caballer, M., Galil, B.S., Schembri, P.J. 2013. The origin and dispersal pathway of the spotted sea hare Aplysia dactylomela (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) in the Mediterranean Sea. Aquatic Invasions 8: 427–436 doi:10.3391/ai.2013.8.4.06
  • Hanson, D., Hirano, Y. & Valdés, A. 2013. Population genetics of Haminoea (Haloa) japonica Pilsbry, 1895, a widespread non-native sea slug (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) in North America and Europe. Biological Invasions 15: 395-406. doi:10.1007/s10530-012-0294-x
  • Goddard, J.H.R., Schaefer, M.C., Hoover, C. & Valdés, A. 2013. The regional extinction of a conspicuous dorid nudibranch (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in California. Marine Biology 160: 1497-1510. doi:10.1007/s00227-013-2204-x
  • Crocetta, F., Macali, A., Furfaro, G., Cooke, S., Villani, G. & Valdés, A. 2013. Alien molluscan species established along the Italian shores: an update, with discussions on some Mediterranean “alien species” categories. ZooKeys 277: 91-108. doi:10.3897/zookeys.277.4362
  • Alexander, J. & Valdés, A. 2013. The ring doesn’t mean a thing: Molecular data suggests a new taxonomy for two Pacific species of sea hares (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia, Aplysiidae). Pacific Science 67: 283-294. doi:10.2984/67.2.10
  • Goodheart, J. & Valdés, A. 2013. Re-evaluation of the Doriopsilla areolata Bergh, 1880 (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) subspecies complex in the eastern Atlantic Ocean and its relationship to South African Doriopsilla miniata (Alder & Hancock, 1864) based on molecular data. Marine Biodiversity 43: 113-120. doi:10.1007/s12526-012-0136-1
  • Gonzalez, L., Hanson, D. & Valdés, A. 2013. Molecular divergence between two sympatric species of Dondice (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) with distinct feeding specializations. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 93: 1887-1893. doi:10.1017/S0025315413000465
  • Valdés, A., Ornelas-Gatdula, E. & DuPont, A. 2013. Color pattern variation in a shallow water species of opisthobranch mollusk. Biological Bulletin 224: 35-46. http://www.biolbull.org/content/224/1/35.abstract
  • Churchill, C., Alejandrino, A., Valdés, A., & Ó Foighil, D. 2013. Parallel changes in genital morphology delineate cryptic diversification in planktonic nudibranchs. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences 280: 1765 20131224. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.1224
  • Espinoza, E., DuPont, A. & Valdés, A. 2013. A tropical Atlantic species of Melibe Rang, 1829 (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Tethyiidae). ZooKeys 316: 55-66. doi:10.3897/zookeys.316.5452
  • Valdés, A., Blanchard, L. & Marti, W. 2013. Caught naked: First report a nudibranch sea slug attacked by a cone snail. American Malacological Bulletin 31: 337-338. doi:10.4003/006.031.0213
  • Hanson, D., Cooke, S., Hirano, Y., Malaquias, M.A.E., Crocetta, F. & Valdés, A. 2013. Slipping through the cracks: The taxonomic impediment conceals the origin and dispersal of Haminoea japonica, an invasive species with impacts to human health. PLoS ONE 8(10): e77457. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077457


  • Ornelas-Gatdula, E. & Valdés, A. 2012. Two cryptic and sympatric species of Philinopsis (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia, Cephalaspidea) in the Bahamas distinguished using molecular and anatomical data. Journal of Molluscan Studies 78: 313-320. doi:10.1093/mollus/eys022
  • Ortigosa, D. & Valdés, A. 2012. A new species of Felimare (formerly Mexichromis) (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia: Chromodorididae) from the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The Nautilus 126: 98-104.
  • Ornelas-Gatdula, E., Camacho-García, Y., Schrödl, M., Padula, V., Hooker, Y., Gosliner, T.M., & Valdés, A. 2012. Molecular systematics of the “Navanax aenigmaticus” species complex (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia): Coming full circle. Zoologica Scripta 41: 374-385. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-6409.2012.00538.x
  • Valdés, A., Moran, A.L., & Woods, H.A. 2012. Revision of several poorly known Antarctic aeolid nudibranch species (Mollusca, Gastropoda) with the description of a new species. Journal of the Marine Biology Association of the United Kingdom 92: 1161-1174. doi:10.1017/S0025315411000348
  • Padula, V. & Valdés, A. 2012. Phylogeny and biogeography of Paradoris (Nudibranchia, Discodorididae), with the description of a new species from the Caribbean Sea. The Veliger 51: 165-176.


  • Valdés, A., Gatdula, U., Sheridan, N., & Herrera, J. 2011. Multi-dataset revision of two uncommon species of Chromodorididae (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) from the Gulf of Mexico with the description of a new taxon. American Malacological Bulletin 29: 51-62. doi:10.4003/006.029.0218
  • Báez, D.P., Ardila, N., Valdés, A. & Acero, A.P. 2011. Taxonomy and phylogeny of Armina (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia: Arminidae) from the Atlantic and eastern Pacific. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.doi:10.1017/S0025315410002109
  • Price, R.M., Gosliner, T.M., & Valdés, A. 2011. Systematics and phylogeny of Philine (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), with emphasis on the Philine aperta species complex. The Veliger 51: 1-58.
  • Stout, C.C., Wilson, N.G., & Valdés, A. 2011. A new species of deep-sea Dendronotus Alder & Hancock, 1845 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) from California, with an expanded phylogeny of the genus. Invertebrate Systematics 25: 60-69. doi:10.1071/IS10027
  • Ornelas-Gatdula, E., DuPont, A., & Valdés, A. 2011. The tail tells the tale: Taxonomy and biogeography of some Atlantic Chelidonura (Gastropoda: Cephalaspidea: Aglajidae) inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial gene data. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 163: 1077-1095 doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00749.x


  • Valdés, A., Gosliner, T. M., & Ghiselin, M. T. 2010. Chapter 8: Opisthobranchs. In: Córdoba-Aguilar, A. & Leonard, J. L. (eds.) The Evolution of Primary Sexual Characters in Animals, pp. 148-172. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Stout, C., Pola, M. & Valdés, A. 2010. Phylogenetic analysis of Dendronotus nudibranchs with emphasis on northeastern Pacific species. Journal of Molluscan Studies76: 367-375. doi:10.1093/mollus/eyq022
  • Valdés, A., Moran, A.L., & Woods, H.A. 2010. A new species of Armodoris (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Polar Biology, 34: 459-463. doi:10.1007/s00300-010-0889-6



  • Hermosillo, A. & Valdés, A. 2008. Two new species of opisthobranch mollusks from the tropical eastern Pacific. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 59: 521-532.
  • Valdés, A. & Hamann, J. 2008. Two new species of Doriopsilla from the tropical western Atlantic with remarks on Cariopsillidae Ortea & Espinosa, 2005. The Veliger 50: 210-218.
  • Valdés, A. 2008. Deep-sea “cephalaspidean” heterobranchs(Gastropoda) from the tropical southwest Pacific. In: Héros, V., Cowie, R., & Bouchet, P. (eds.) Tropical Deep-Sea Benthos, vol. 25. Mémoires du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, 196: 587-792.
  • Gosliner, T. M., Behrens, D. W., & Valdés, A. 2008. Indo-Pacific Nudibranchs and Sea Slugs: A Field Guide to the World’s Most Diverse Fauna. Sea Challengers, Gig Harbor, WA & California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA, 426 pp.


  • Krug, P. J., Ellingson, R. A., Burton, R., & Valdés, A. 2007.  A new poecilogonous species of sea slug (Opisthobranchia: Sacoglossa) from California: Comparison with the planktotrophic congener Alderia modesta (Lovén, 1844). Journal of Molluscan Studies 73: 29-38. doi:10.1093/mollus/eyl025
  • Hermosillo, A. & Valdés, A. 2007. Five new species of aeolid nudibranchs (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia) from the tropical eastern Pacific. American Malacological Bulletin 22: 119-137. doi:10.4003/0740-2783-22.1.119
  • Hermosillo, A. & Valdés, A. 2007. A new Polycera (Opisthobranchia: Mollusca) from Bahía de Banderas, México. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 58: 477-484.


  • Sturm, C. F., Pearce, T. A., & Valdés, A. (eds.) 2006. The Mollusks, A Guide to their Study, Collection and Preservation. American Malacological Society, Los Angeles, CA & Pittsburg, PA, 445 pp.
  • Valdés, A., Hamann, J. Behrens, D. & DuPont, A. 2006. Caribbean Sea Slugs. A Field Guide to the Opisthobranch Mollusks from the Tropical Northwestern Atlantic. Sea Challengers, Gig Harbor, WA, 289 pp.
  • Valdés, A. 2006. Marionia tedi Ev. Marcus, 1983 (Nudibranchia, Tritoniidae) in the Gulf of Mexico: First record of an opisthobranch mollusk from hydrocarbon cold seeps. Gulf and Caribbean Research 18: 41-46.
  • Alejandrino, A. & Valdés, A. 2006. Phylogeny and biogeography of the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Hypselodoris Stimpson, 1855 (Nudibranchia, Chromodorididae) with the description of a new species from the Caribbean Sea. Journal of Molluscan Studies 72: 189-198. doi:10.1093/mollus/eyi064
  • Valdés, A. & Fahey, S. F. 2006. Dorid nudibranchs described by J.E. Gray in M.E. Gray, 1842-1857 (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia). Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 69: 95-102.


  • Valdés, A. & Barwick, K. 2005. First record of Akera Müller, 1776 from the eastern Pacific, with the description of a new species. The Nautilus 119: 43-49.
  • Valdés, A. 2005. A new species of Aeolidiella Bergh, 1867 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia: Aeolidiidae) from the Florida Keys, USA. The Veliger 47: 218-223.
  • Valdés, A. & Bouchet, P. 2005. Cephalaspidea, Thecosomata, Gymnosomata, Aplysiomorpha, Umbraculida, Acochlidiacea, Sacoglossa, Cylindobullida, Nudipleura. In: Bouchet, P. & Rocroi, J.-P. (eds.), Classification and Nomenclator of Gastropod Families. Malacologia 47: 1-397.
  • Fahey, S. F. & Valdés, A. 2005. Review of Acanthodoris Gray, 1850 with a phylogenetic analysis of Onchidorididae Alder and Hancock, 1845 (Mollusca, Nudibranchia). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 56: 213-272.
  • Valdés, A. & Adams, M. J. 2005. A new species of Glossodoris Ehrenberg, 1831 (Mollusca, Nudibranchia) from Indonesia. Pacific Science 59: 603-605.
  • Taylor, J., Laimon, S. & Valdés, A. 2005. Is Doris georgiensis García et al., 1993 a distinct species of dorid nudibranch? Polar Biology 29: 73-76. doi:10.1007/s00300-005-0031-3
  • Collin, R. Díaz, M. C., Norenburg, J., Rocha, R. M., Sánchez, J. A., Shulze, A., Schwartz, M. & Valdés, A. 2005. Photographic identification guide to some common marine invertebrates of Bocas del Toro, Panama. Caribbean Journal of Science 41: 638-707.
  • Valdés, A. 2006. Marionia tedi Ev. Marcus, 1983 (Nudibranchia, Tritoniidae) in the Gulf of Mexico: First record of an opisthobranch mollusk from hydrocarbon cold seeps. Gulf and Caribbean Research 18: 41-46.
  • Valdés, A. 2005. Subclass Opisthobranchia s.l. In: Rolán, E. (ed.) Malacological Fauna from the Cape Verde Archipelago, pp. 201-248, figs. 922-962, 968-1070. ConchBooks, Hackenheim, Germany.
  • Camacho-García, Y., Gosliner, T. M. & Valdés, A. 2005. Guía de Campo de las Babosas Marinas del Pacífico Este Tropical / Field Guide to the Sea Slugs of the Tropical Eastern Pacific. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA, 130 pp.


  • Valdés, A. 2004. Morphology of the penial hooks and vaginal cuticular lining of some dorid nudibranchs (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia). American Malacological Bulletin 18: 49-53.
  • Behrens D. W. & Valdés, A. 2004. A new species of Dendrodoris (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Dendrodorididae) from the Pacific coast of North America. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 55: 408-413.
  • Valdés, A. & Angulo Campillo, O. 2004. Systematics of pelagic aeolid nudibranchs of the family Glaucidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Bulletin of Marine Science 75: 381-389.
  • Ardila, N. E. & Valdés, A. 2004. The genus Armina (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia: Arminidae) in the Southern Caribbean, with the description of a new species. The Nautilus 118: 131-138.
  • Valdés, A. 2004. Tropical western Atlantic species of Diaulula Bergh, 1878 (Mollusca, Nudibranchia), with the description of a new species. Contributions in Science 501: 1-7.
  • Valdés, A. 2004. Phylogeography and phyloecology of dorid nudibranchs (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 83: 551-559.
  • Gosliner, T. M., Ortea, J. & Valdés, A. 2004. New data on tropical eastern Pacific Chromodorididae (Nudibranchia: Doridina) with description of a new species of Mexichromis Bertsch, 1977. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 55: 590-599.
  • Hermosillo, A. & Valdés, A. 2004. Two New Species of Dorid Nudibranchs (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia) from Bahía de Banderas and La Paz, Mexico. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 55: 552-562.
  • Valdés, A. & Camacho-García, Y. E. 2004. “Cephalaspidean” heterobranchs(Gastropoda) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 55: 459-499.


  • Valdés, A. 2003. Preliminary molecular phylogeny of the radula-less dorids (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), based on 16S mtDNA sequence data. Journal of Molluscan Studies 69: 75-80.
  • Camacho-García, Y. & Valdés, A. 2003. Caryophyllidia-bearing dorid nudibranchs (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Doridacea) from Costa Rica. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 54: 65-79.
  • Fahey, S. F. & Valdés, A. 2003. A new species of Platydoris (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) from North-Western Australia. In: Wells, F. E., Walker, D. I. & Jones, D. S. (eds.) The Marine Flora and Fauna of Dampier, Western Australia, pp. 395-403. Western Australia Museum, Perth, Australia.
  • Valdés, A. & Lourenço Afonso, C. M. 2003. Synonymy of Cadlina burnayi Ortea, 1988 from the Cape Verde Islands (Opisthobranchia: Chromodorididae) with Tyrinna evelinae (Marcus, 1958). The Veliger 46: 176-179.
  • Angulo Campillo, O. & Valdés, A. 2003. A new species of Cuthona Alder & Hancock, 1855 from the Gulf of California, Mexico (Opisthobranchia: Nudibranchia: Tergipedidae). The Veliger 46: 179-182.


  • Dorgan, K. M., Valdés, A. & Gosliner, T. M. 2002. Phylogenetic systematics of the genus Platydoris (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Doridioidea) with descriptions of six new species. Zoologica Scripta 31: 271-319.
  • Valdés, A. & Behrens, D. W. 2002. Phylogenetic systematics of Reticulidia Brunckhorst, 1990 (Mollusca, Nudibranchia) with the description of a new species from the tropical Indo-Pacific. Contributions in Science 492: 1-10.
  • Valdés, A. 2002. Review of the genus Actinocyclus Ehrenberg, 1831 (Opisthobranchia: Doridoidea). The Veliger 45: 193-202.
  • Gosliner, T. M. & Valdés, A. 2002. Sponging off of Porifera: New species of cryptic dorid nudibranchs (Mollusca, Nudibranchia) from the tropical Indo-Pacific. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 53: 51-61.
  • Valdés, A. 2002. Phylogenetic systematics of "Bathydoris" s.l. Bergh, 1884 (Mollusca, Nudibranchia), with the description of a new species from New Caledonian deep waters. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80: 1084-1099.
  • Valdés, A. & Muniain, C. 2002. Revision and taxonomic reassessment of Magellanic species assigned to Anisodoris Bergh, 1898 (Nudibranchia: Doridoidea). Journal of Molluscan Studies 68: 345-351.
  • Valdés, A. 2002. How many species of Hexabranchus (Opisthobranchia, Dorididae) are there? Molluscan Research 22: 289-301.
  • Valdés, A. 2002. A phylogenetic analysis and systematic revision of the cryptobranch dorids (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Anthobranchia). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 136: 535-636.
  • Valdés, A. & Templado, J. 2002. Indo-Pacific dorid nudibranchs collected in Lebanon (eastern Mediterranean). Iberus 20: 23-30.


  • Garovoy, J. M. Valdés, A. & Gosliner, T. M. 2001. Phylogeny of the genus Rostanga (Mollusca, Nudibranchia), with descriptions of three new species from South Africa. Journal of Molluscan Studies 67: 131-144.
  • Valdés, A. 2001. On the publication date, authorship and type species of Umbraculum and Tylodina (Opisthobranchia, Notaspidea). The Nautilus 115: 29-34.
  • Valdés, A. 2001. Depth–related adaptations, speciation processes and evolution of color in the genus Phyllidiopsis (Mollusca, Nudibranchia). Marine Biology 139: 485-496.
  • Valdés, A. 2001. Phyllidiid nudibranchs (Mollusca) from the deep south-western Pacific Ocean. In: Bouchet, P. & Marshall, B. A. (eds.) Tropical Deep-Sea Benthos, vol. 22. Mémoires du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, 185: 331-369.
  • Valdés, A. & Gosliner, T. M. 2001. Systematics and phylogeny of the caryophyllidia-bearing dorids (Mollusca, Nudibranchia), with the description of a new genus and four new species from Indo-Pacific deep waters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 133: 103-198.
  • Johnson, R. & Valdés, A. 2001. The Hypselodoris infucata colour group (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Chromodorididae), with remarks on the genus Brachychlanis Ehrenberg, 1831. Journal of Natural History 35: 1371-1398.
  • Behrens, D.W. & Valdés, A. 2001. The identity of Doris (s.l.) species MacFarland, 1966 (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Discodorididae): A persistent mystery from California solved. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 52: 183-193.
  • Valdés, A. 2001. Deep-sea dorid nudibranchs (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia) from the tropical West Pacific, with descriptions of two new genera and nineteen new species. Malacologia 43: 237-311.


  • Vallès, Y., Valdés, A. & Ortea, J. 2000. On the phanerobranch dorids from Angola (Mollusca, Nudibranchia): a crossroads of temperate and tropical species. Zoosystema 22: 1-17.
  • Muniain, C. & Valdés, A. 2000. Rostanga byga Er. Marcus, 1958 from Argentina: redescription and comparison to Rostanga pulchra MacFarland, 1905 (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Doridina). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 52: 1-10.
  • Valdés, A. & Bertsch, H. 2000. Redescription and range extension of Bathydoris aioca Marcus & Marcus, 1962 (Nudibranchia, Gnathodoridacea). The Veliger 43: 172-178.
  • Valdés, A. & Camacho-García, Y. 2000. A new species of Cyerce Bergh, 1871 (Mollusca, Sacoglossa, Polybranchiidae) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Bulletin of Marine Science 66: 445-456.
  • Ballesteros, M. & Valdés, A. 2000. Redescripción de Baptodoris cinnabarina Bergh, 1884 (Opisthobranchia, Doridina, Platydorididae) y discusión taxonómica de otras especies del género Baptodoris Bergh, 1884. Iberus 17: 27-35.
  • Bouchet, P. & Valdés, A. 2000. Case 3088. Doris verucosa Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca, Gastropoda): proposed conservation of the generic and specific names by designation of a neotype. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 57: 74-80.
  • Valdés, A. & Angulo Campillo, O. 2000. Redescription and reassessment of Cadlina luarna (Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967), comb. nov. (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia, Doridina). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 52: 77-85.
  • Elwood, H. R., Valdés, A. & Gosliner, T. M. 2000. Two new species of Aldisa Bergh, 1878 (Mollusca, Nudibranchia) from the tropical Indo-Pacific. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 52: 171-181.
  • Valdés, A. & Lozouet, P. 2000. Opisthobranch molluscs from the tertiary of the Aquitaine basin (South-Western France), with descriptions of seven new species and a new genus. Palaeontology 43: 457-479.


  • Valdés, A. & Gosliner, T. M. 1999. Reassessment of the systematic status of Miamira Bergh, 1875 and Orodoris Bergh, 1875 (Nudibranchia, Chromodorididae) in light of phylogenetic analysis. Journal of Molluscan Studies 65: 33-45.
  • Garovoy, J. M. Valdés, A. & Gosliner, T. M. 1999. Two new species of Gargamella from South Africa (Mollusca, Nudibranchia). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 51: 245-257.
  • Valdés, A. & Gosliner, T. M. 1999. Phylogeny of the radula-less dorids (Mollusca, Nudibranchia), with the description of a new genus and a new family. Zoologica Scripta 28: 315-360.
  • Valdés, A., Mollo, E. & Ortea, J. 1999. Two new species of Chromodoris (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Chromodorididae) from Southern India, with a redescription of Chromodoris trimarginata (Wickworth, 1946). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 51: 461-472.


  • Valdés, A. & Bouchet, P. 1998. A blind abyssal Corambidae (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) from the Norwegian Sea, with a reevaluation of the systematics of the family. Sarsia 83: 15-20.
  • Valdés, A. & Bouchet, P. 1998. Naked in toxic fluids: a nudibranch mollusc from hydrothermal vents. Deep Sea Research Part II: Tropical Studies in Oceanography 45: 319-327.
  • Valdés, A. & Behrens, D. W. 1998. A new species of Doriopsilla (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Dendrodorididae) from the Pacific coast of North America. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 50: 307-314.
  • Valdés, A. & Ortea, J. 1998. A new species of Doriopsilla (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Dendrodorididae) from Cuba. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 50: 389-396.
  • Valdés, A. & Héros, V. 1998. The types of opisthobranchs molluscs in the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle. Zoosystema 20: 695-742.
  • Willan, R. C., Valdés, A. & Brunckhorst, D. J. 1998. Nomenclatural implications from the rediscovery of the holotype of Phyllidia varicosa Lamarck, 1801 (Nudibranchia, Phyllidiidae). Journal of Molluscan Studies 64: 500-503.


  • Kase, T. & Valdés, A. 1997. The enigma of Bertinia bertinia Jousseaume, 1883 solved. Venus 56: 233-240.
  • Ortea, J., Valdés, A. & Templado, J. 1997. Hallaxa apefae Marcus, 1957 (Nudibranchia: Actinocyclidae) from Ghana (West Africa), newly recognized as an amphiatlantic species. The Veliger 40: 86-88.
  • Valdés, A. & Ortea, J. 1997. Review of the genus Doriopsilla Bergh, 1880 (Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) in the Atlantic Ocean. The Veliger 40: 240-254.


  • Valdés, A., Ortea, J., Ávila, C. & Ballesteros, M. 1996. Review of the genus Dendrodoris (Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) in the Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Molluscan Studies 62: 1-31.
  • Cigarría, J. & Valdés, A. 1996. Anadara inaequivalvis (Bruguière, 1789) in the North Atlantic. Journal of Conchology 35: 378-379.
  • Muniaín, C., Valdés, A. & Ortea, J. 1996. Redescription of Tyrinna nobilis Bergh, 1898 (Opisthobranchia, Chromodorididae) from Patagonia, Argentina. Journal of Molluscan Studies 62: 265-273.
  • Valdés, A. & Ortea, J. 1996. Review of the family Phyllidiidae in the Atlantic Ocean. American Malacological Bulletin 13: 1-9.
  • Muñoz, M. A., Valdés, A. & Ortea, J. 1996. The genus Okenia Menke, 1830 (Nudibranchia, Goniodorididae) in Chile. Haliotis 25: 101-106.
  • Ortea, J., Valdés, A. & García-Gómez, J. C. 1996. Revisión de las especies Atlánticas de la familia Chromodorididae (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) del grupo cromático azul. Avicennia, suplemento 1: 1-165.


  • Valdés, A. & Ortea, J. 1995. Revised taxonomy of some species of the genus Okenia Menke, 1830 (Mollusca, Nudibranchia) from the Atlantic Ocean with the description of a new species. The Veliger 38: 212-223.


  • Ortea, J. & Valdés, A. 1994. Case 2886. Doris gradiflora Rapp, 1827 (Mollusca, Gastropoda): proposed conservation of the specific name. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 51: 7-9.
  • Ortea, J., Valdés, A. & Espinosa, J. 1994. North Atlantic Nudibranchs of the Chromodoris clenchi colour group (Opisthobranchia, Chromodorididae). Journal of Molluscan Studies 60: 237-248.